Researchers at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Cancer Cell Unit, Cambridge have gained an important new insight into the role of the breast cancer gene known as BRCA2. It appears to have a key function in cell division which needs to happen accurately for normal cell reproduction and repair, otherwise disease occurs. The findings are published today (29 Friday October 2004) in the journal Science.
Around 30 to 50 per cent of breast cancers that run in families are thought to occur because the BRCA2 gene is not working. People who inherit defective BRCA2 are not only more susceptible to breast cancer, but also have a higher risk of developing cancers of the ovary, pancreas and prostate. The researchers found that where there was a mutation in the BRCA2 gene, cells failed to divide accurately and acquired an incorrect number of chromosomes.*
The final critical step where cells divide is called cytokinesis. This is where a cell separates into two to create replicas of itself known as ‘daughter cells’. It is at this point that a full set of chromosomes is put together for each of the new cells. Any malfunction in this process can result in cells having too few or too many chromosomes or abnormalities, which have implications for disease. Since the discovery of the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, researchers have sought to identify exactly why mutations in these genes lead to breast cancer. Understanding the role BRCA2 has in cell division and chromosome separation sheds light on this mechanism and what happens when it goes wrong.
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Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
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UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration
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Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.
Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...
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