Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Family therapy reduces stress symptoms in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer

27.10.2004


Family therapy and other psychological treatments may help reduce symptoms of post-traumatic stress among teenaged survivors of childhood cancer--as well as among their parents.



In studying a group of 150 families, researchers at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia found that participants had significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress after a one-day treatment program, compared to a control group who did not receive the treatment. Each family included an adolescent who had completed cancer treatment an average of five years previously.

The study, in the September 2004 issue of the Journal of Family Psychology, is the first reported large randomized clinical trial of treatment related to family adjustment to a serious pediatric illness. Half of the group, randomly chosen, received the treatment, which combined cognitive-behavioral therapy with family therapy. The other half of the group received the treatment after the study was completed.


"Because cancer is a life-threatening experience, it represents a traumatic stress that may leave aftereffects such as those found in survivors of war and natural disasters," says Anne E. Kazak, Ph.D., director of Psychology at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, and senior author of the study. Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) include intrusive, unwanted thoughts; avoidance of stress-inducing settings and situations; and heightened arousal, such as nausea or increased heart rate triggered by reminders of the original experience.

Researchers found the strongest effects of the treatment in the adolescent survivors, who had decreased arousal symptoms, and among the survivors’ fathers, who had fewer intrusive thoughts. "Fathers are often underrepresented in pediatric research samples, because so many studies occur in outpatient settings where mothers accompany their children," remarked Dr. Kazak. Dr. Kazak’s previous studies found that fathers of childhood cancer survivors have PTSS at levels nearly as high as mothers. "Many of the fathers in this study said they had feared that expressing their upsetting memories would be detrimental to other family members," Dr. Kazak added. "They found that sharing those reactions with their family was a powerful experience, and helped to reduce their sense of being isolated with those feelings."

Surprisingly, mothers of survivors did not show a significant effect from the treatment. One complicating factor, said Dr. Kazak, is that families with higher PTSS levels were more likely to drop out of the study. A statistical analysis of their findings suggested that the treatment would have had stronger effects if the families with higher distress levels had completed the study. "Delving into distressing memories is difficult," Dr. Kazak added. "Many families had reservations about opening this can of worms. However, families who did participate in the treatment benefited from it." She added that future treatments might occur away from a hospital setting, because people with PTSS may avoid locations such as hospitals that are associated with the cancer experience.

For the treatment, the researchers used the Surviving Cancer Competently Intervention Program (SCCIP), established by Dr. Kazak and her team at Children’s Hospital. The four-session, one-day program uses a family group treatment model. Employing cognitive-behavioral principles, therapists encouraged group participants to identify bothersome memories about the child’s cancer and to express personal beliefs about the adverse experiences.

Therapists then taught the participants coping skills by encouraging them to reframe their thoughts to focus on controllable and positive consequences. "We might urge a survivor to say, for example, ’Cancer is still unfair, but what can I do about it now?"’ said Dr. Kazak,

In family discussion groups, the researchers offered take-home messages to assist family members in supporting each other through stressful episodes stemming from their shared experiences. "We help family members figure out how to talk about cancer as a family, and how to recognize when a family member is upset from the stress," said Dr. Kazak. "For instance, parents may not always be aware how siblings of the cancer survivor may be affected."

The study’s findings, that brief psychological interventions are effective in relieving traumatic stress symptoms in family members, may have a broader relevance beyond childhood cancer. "This approach may be applicable to other situations in treating the aftereffects of trauma associated with medical diagnosis and treatment," said Dr. Kazak. "For instance, we have studied stress symptoms following automobile injuries. Accidental injuries, burns, and chronic conditions such as asthma or sickle cell disease may also involve painful or frightening treatments that engender traumatic stress."

Co-authors with Dr. Kazak were Melissa A. Alderfer, Ph.D.; Randy Streisand, Ph.D.; Steven Simms, Ph.D.; Mary T. Rourke, Ph.D.; Paul Gallagher, M.A.; and Avital Cnaan, Ph.D.; of The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; and Lamia P. Barakat, Ph.D., of Drexel University. Drs. Kazak, Alderfer and Cnaan also are faculty members of the University of Pennsylvania. Funding support for the study came from the National Cancer Institute and the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania.

John Ascenzi | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.chop.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Oxygen can wake up dormant bacteria for antibiotic attacks
08.12.2016 | Penn State

nachricht NTU scientists build new ultrasound device using 3-D printing technology
07.12.2016 | Nanyang Technological University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Closing the carbon loop

08.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Applicability of dynamic facilitation theory to binary hard disk systems

08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Scientists track chemical and structural evolution of catalytic nanoparticles in 3-D

08.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>