A repetitive drop in blood oxygen levels in newborn rats, similar to that caused by apnea (brief pauses in breathing) in some human infants, is followed by a long-lasting reduction in the release of the brain neurotransmitter dopamine, according to an Emory University research study. Because dopamine promotes attention, learning, memory and a variety of higher cognitive functions, the researchers believe repetitive apnea during neonatal development may be one factor leading to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This research will be reported at the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting in San Diego on October 24 by Glenda Keating, PhD, and Michael Decker, PhD, of the Department of Neurology at Emory Universitys School of Medicine. The research was funded by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and conducted by the Program in Sleep Medicine and the Department of Neurology at Emory University.
Apnea of prematurity occurs in up to 85 percent of all prematurely born human infants, and obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 3 to 27 percent of all children. Data from previous studies suggests that diminished release of brain dopamine may be responsible for behaviors such as impulsiveness and distractibility, reduced self control, and impaired learning, which are hallmark traits associated with ADHD. Previous studies in Dr. Deckers laboratory at Emory have shown that newborn rats who experience repetitive drops in blood oxygen levels go on to develop behavioral traits similar to those seen in humans with ADHD. This is the first time, however, that researchers have linked repetitive reductions in blood oxygen levels during a period of critical brain development to long-lasting deficiencies in release of dopamine specifically within the striatum, which is one of the brain regions important in modulating behavior, learning and memory.
The scientists exposed newborn rats from 7 to 11 days old to either 20-second bursts of a gas containing low oxygen content or to bursts of compressed air. Once the rats matured into juveniles, the scientists studied their locomotive activity and brain dopamine levels. They found that juvenile rats exposed to brief reductions in oxygen during their neonatal period had a 50 percent reduction in release of dopamine and were hyperactive.
Holly Korschun | EurekAlert!
The end of pneumonia? New vaccine offers hope
23.10.2017 | University at Buffalo
Scientists track ovarian cancers to site of origin: Fallopian tubes
23.10.2017 | Johns Hopkins Medicine
Salmonellae are dangerous pathogens that enter the body via contaminated food and can cause severe infections. But these bacteria are also known to target...
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
23.10.2017 | Event News
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
24.10.2017 | Life Sciences
23.10.2017 | Life Sciences
23.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy