Two of the most commonly prescribed drugs for treating HIV (antiretroviral drugs)--nevirapine and efavirenz--can both raise levels of the "good type" of cholesterol (HDL cholesterol), but nevirapine raises it higher than efavirenz, according to a new study by van Leth and colleagues published in the launch issue of PLoS Medicine. "These data suggest that nevirapine may be preferable to efavirenz in HIV-infected adults who have increased cardiovascular risk," says Andrew Carr, an HIV specialist at St. Vincents Hospital in Sydney, Australia, who was not involved in the study. Cardiovascular risk factors include high blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking, which put patients at higher risk of heart disease and stroke.
However, perceived cardiovascular risk is only one factor that would affect the choice between these two drugs, notes Carr. Efavirenz is thought to be marginally better than nevirapine at keeping HIV infection under control; efavirenz is also advantageous because patients only need to take it once a day, whereas nevirapine must be taken twice daily. The new study "moves clinicians and patients away from one-size-fits-all antiretroviral therapy," says Carr, allowing them to weigh up the different advantages and disadvantages of each drug.
In the study, the researchers compared the cholesterol levels in 417 patients with HIV who were taking nevirapine against 289 patients who were taking efavirenz. None of the patients had been on any antiretroviral drugs before. Patients taking nevirapine had a significantly larger increase in HDL cholesterol compared with patients taking efavirenz.
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Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
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Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
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In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
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