Two of the most commonly prescribed drugs for treating HIV (antiretroviral drugs)--nevirapine and efavirenz--can both raise levels of the "good type" of cholesterol (HDL cholesterol), but nevirapine raises it higher than efavirenz, according to a new study by van Leth and colleagues published in the launch issue of PLoS Medicine. "These data suggest that nevirapine may be preferable to efavirenz in HIV-infected adults who have increased cardiovascular risk," says Andrew Carr, an HIV specialist at St. Vincents Hospital in Sydney, Australia, who was not involved in the study. Cardiovascular risk factors include high blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking, which put patients at higher risk of heart disease and stroke.
However, perceived cardiovascular risk is only one factor that would affect the choice between these two drugs, notes Carr. Efavirenz is thought to be marginally better than nevirapine at keeping HIV infection under control; efavirenz is also advantageous because patients only need to take it once a day, whereas nevirapine must be taken twice daily. The new study "moves clinicians and patients away from one-size-fits-all antiretroviral therapy," says Carr, allowing them to weigh up the different advantages and disadvantages of each drug.
In the study, the researchers compared the cholesterol levels in 417 patients with HIV who were taking nevirapine against 289 patients who were taking efavirenz. None of the patients had been on any antiretroviral drugs before. Patients taking nevirapine had a significantly larger increase in HDL cholesterol compared with patients taking efavirenz.
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The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
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Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
Two researchers at Heidelberg University have developed a model system that enables a better understanding of the processes in a quantum-physical experiment...
Glaciers might seem rather inhospitable environments. However, they are home to a diverse and vibrant microbial community. It’s becoming increasingly clear that they play a bigger role in the carbon cycle than previously thought.
A new study, now published in the journal Nature Geoscience, shows how microbial communities in melting glaciers contribute to the Earth’s carbon cycle, a...
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21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy