Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Running not swimming or biking is best kind of loading exercise for childrens bone growth

06.10.2004


Mechanical loading through exercise builds bone strength and this effect is most pronounced during skeletal growth and development, according to Charles H. Turner, professor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and director of orthopaedic research at the Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis.



Exercise that puts the “best” kind of mechanical load to strengthen bones, especially during childhood and adolescence, Turner says, involves impact or high rates of load such as running or jumping, as opposed to swimming or biking. Growing bones are most responsive to the strengthening effects of running/jumping, which have the additional benefit that these types of exercise don’t affect longitudinal growth, Turner says.

Activities like “serious weight-lifting, however, aren’t recommended for children because overloading growing joints can stunt longitudinal bone growth,” and consequently stunt overall limb growth and height, he adds.


Turner says that the strengthening effect of exercise is very efficient because the cellular mechanosensors within bone direct osteogenesis (new bone growth) to where it is most needed to improve bone strength and hence bone mass.

Mechanosensors, desensitization under study

Though the cellular mechanosensors are very efficient, Turner noted that the biological processes involved in bone mechanotransduction are poorly understood, “yet several pathways are emerging from current research.” These include ion channels in the cell membrane, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) signaling, and second messengers such as prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Specific targets of mechanical loading include the L-type calcium channel (alpha 1C isoform), a gadolinium-sensitive stretch-activated channel, P2Y2 and P2X7 purinergic receptors, EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors, and the parathyroid hormone receptors.

“One characteristic of the mechanosensing apparatus that has only recently been studied is the important role of desensitization,” Turner notes. “Experimental protocols that insert ‘rest’ periods to reduce the effects of desensitization can double anabolic responses to mechanical loading,” he adds. Again, it’s unclear how desensitization of bone cells occur, but it’s an area ripe for further study.

A recent paper with his colleague, Alexander G. Robling, “Designing exercise regimens to increase bone strength,” dealt with desensitization and age-related effects of exercise, among many other topics, including development of an exercise “osteogenic index” or OI. The paper appeared in the “Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews.” Among the OI observations were: (1) “short intense exercise bouts build bone most effectively, hence short sprints should build more bone than a long jog,” (2) “OI is best improved by adding more exercise sessions per week rather than lengthening the duration of individual sessions,” (3) “to reduce exercise time, it is far better to shorten each session than to reduce the number of sessions,” and (4) “the osteogenic potential of exercise can be increased further when daily exercise is divided into two shorter sessions separated by 8 hours.”

Mayer Resnick | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.the-aps.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Organ-on-a-chip mimics heart's biomechanical properties
23.02.2017 | Vanderbilt University

nachricht Researchers identify cause of hereditary skeletal muscle disorder
22.02.2017 | Klinikum der Universität München

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Safe glide at total engine failure with ELA-inside

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded after a glide flight with an Airbus A320 in ditching on the Hudson River. All 155 people on board were saved.

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded...

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New pop-up strategy inspired by cuts, not folds

27.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Sandia uses confined nanoparticles to improve hydrogen storage materials performance

27.02.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

Decoding the genome's cryptic language

27.02.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>