Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Genetic differences might help distinguish thyroid cancers

30.09.2004


Two types of thyroid cancer that are closely related and sometimes difficult to distinguish can be readily identified by differences in only a few genes, new research shows.



The study, by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, used microarray analysis to show that papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) differ in the expression of only four or five genes.

Distinguishing between the two cancers is important because the malignancies behave differently and require different treatment. The research should also help scientists better understand the origins of the two diseases. The study is published in the a recent issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology. “This finding suggests a potentially very useful diagnostic aid in those rare instances where the pathologist cannot distinguish between FTC and PTC,” says study leader Charis Eng, the Dorothy E. Klotz Chair of Cancer Research and director of OSU’s clinical cancer genetics program.


Thyroid cancer represents one percent of all cancers in the United States and is the most common cancer of the endocrine hormone system. Over the last few years, thyroid cancer has risen at an alarming rate, Eng says. An estimated 23,600 new cases of thyroid cancer are expected this year, nearly two-thirds of which will occur in women, and 1,460 Americans are expected to die from the disease. PTC represents about 80 percent of all thyroid cancers, with FTC representing about 10 percent of cases.

Eng and her colleagues have shown that two distinct groups of genes are either over-active or under-active in PTC cells compared with normal thyroid cells. Genes that were inactive or under-active were more typical of FTC cells.

They further found that five genes could distinguish the two tumor types.

The researchers used microarray analysis, which reveals the activity levels of tens of thousands of genes at one time, to compare gene activity in cells from six PTC tumors, nine FTC tumors and 13 samples of normal thyroid tissue.

The PTC cells showed over-expression of genes known as CITED1, claudin-10 (CLDN10), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6). It also showed no change in two genes, caveolin-1 (CAV-1) or caveolin-2 (CAV-2). FTC cells, on the other hand, showed no expression by CLDN10 and low activity by IGFBP6 and/or by CAV1 and CAV2.

If verified in a larger number of tumors, these genes, in combination with other known genetic changes in thyroid cancer cells, form the basis for a valuable diagnostic tool, says Eng, a recipient of the Doris Duke Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award. “Our work begins to elucidate the fundamental differences and similarities between these two types of thyroid cancer, which should help in the future to develop new therapies,” Eng says.

Clinical testing for the genetic differences can be done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, which is far more available and far less costly than microarray analysis.

Other Ohio State researchers involved in the study were first author Micheala A. Aldred, Sandya Liyanarachchi, Natalia S. Pellegata, Sissy Jhiang, Ramana V. Davuluri and Albert de la Chapelle.

Funding from the National Cancer Institute, and a gift from the Brown family, in memory of Welton D. Brown, supported this research.

Darrell E. Ward | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.osu.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Team discovers how bacteria exploit a chink in the body's armor
20.01.2017 | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

nachricht Rabies viruses reveal wiring in transparent brains
19.01.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Helmholtz International Fellow Award for Sarah Amalia Teichmann

20.01.2017 | Awards Funding

An innovative high-performance material: biofibers made from green lacewing silk

20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery

20.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>