Radiation therapy (RT) has been the most important treatment modality with curative potential in treating patients with cancer of the nasopharynx, the part of the pharynx that lies above the soft palate. This is due to several factors: (1) undifferentiated carcinoma, or tumour cells with no resemblance at all to normal glandular or surface lining cells, is quite radiosensitive and is more common than squamous cell carcinoma; (2) more than two-thirds of the patients present with cervical lymph node metastases at time of diagnosis; (3) about half of the patients present with bilateral cervical metastases; (4) retropharyngeal lymph node, which is difficult to remove surgically, is frequently involved at rather earlier stages.
Local control and survival rates have been improved by increasing the radiation dose since 1950’s, and favorable 10-year survival rates ranging from 65 to 77 percent were achievable in patients with early stage disease by high dose radiation therapy. However, the long-term survival rates in those with high T or N stages are not satisfactory because of either poor local control or frequent distant metastases. The addition of systemic chemotherapy to high dose RT has been widely tried in an effort to overcome these limitations.
Three sequences of combining chemotherapy RT have been tried: chemotherapy before surgery followed by radiation therapy; adjuvant chemotherapy after RT; and concurrent radiochemotherapy. Based on several phase III trials, positive role of chemotherapy that was added to RT in locally advanced nasopharynx cancer was proved, and the concurrent fashion was regarded, if not conclusive, as the most effective strategy.
Organ-on-a-chip mimics heart's biomechanical properties
23.02.2017 | Vanderbilt University
Researchers identify cause of hereditary skeletal muscle disorder
22.02.2017 | Klinikum der Universität München
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The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.
The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...
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Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".
Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...
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