Radiation therapy (RT) has been the most important treatment modality with curative potential in treating patients with cancer of the nasopharynx, the part of the pharynx that lies above the soft palate. This is due to several factors: (1) undifferentiated carcinoma, or tumour cells with no resemblance at all to normal glandular or surface lining cells, is quite radiosensitive and is more common than squamous cell carcinoma; (2) more than two-thirds of the patients present with cervical lymph node metastases at time of diagnosis; (3) about half of the patients present with bilateral cervical metastases; (4) retropharyngeal lymph node, which is difficult to remove surgically, is frequently involved at rather earlier stages.
Local control and survival rates have been improved by increasing the radiation dose since 1950’s, and favorable 10-year survival rates ranging from 65 to 77 percent were achievable in patients with early stage disease by high dose radiation therapy. However, the long-term survival rates in those with high T or N stages are not satisfactory because of either poor local control or frequent distant metastases. The addition of systemic chemotherapy to high dose RT has been widely tried in an effort to overcome these limitations.
Three sequences of combining chemotherapy RT have been tried: chemotherapy before surgery followed by radiation therapy; adjuvant chemotherapy after RT; and concurrent radiochemotherapy. Based on several phase III trials, positive role of chemotherapy that was added to RT in locally advanced nasopharynx cancer was proved, and the concurrent fashion was regarded, if not conclusive, as the most effective strategy.
GLUT5 fluorescent probe fingerprints cancer cells
20.04.2018 | Michigan Technological University
Scientists re-create brain neurons to study obesity and personalize treatment
20.04.2018 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.
Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.
Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.
Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...
Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.
The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...
Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. This is made possible by inducing specific molecular processes occurring during embryonic cartilage formation, as researchers from the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the scientific journal PNAS.
Certain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from the bone marrow of adults are considered extremely promising for skeletal tissue regeneration. These adult stem...
In the fight against cancer, scientists are developing new drugs to hit tumor cells at so far unused weak points. Such a “sore spot” is the protein complex...
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
09.04.2018 | Event News
20.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
20.04.2018 | Interdisciplinary Research
20.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy