For some time, researchers have known that people with diabetes have a greater risk of developing Alzheimers disease and other forms of dementia than those without diabetes, but the exact cause of this link has not been known. Now, a new study by researchers in Cologne, Germany, and at Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston, to be published this week online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggests that insulin resistance in brain cells can affect how they function, causing some of the biochemical changes typically seen in Alzheimers disease.
Insulin resistance is a major contributor to type 2 diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, which affect nearly one-quarter of the American population. In these insulin resistant states, tissues of the body such as muscle, liver, and fat fail to respond normally to the insulin produced by the pancreas, leading to a wide range of metabolic abnormalities. In patients with diabetes, this includes elevated blood sugar levels which, if uncontrolled, can lead to such vascular complications as blindness, limb amputations, kidney disease, heart disease, stroke and nerve damage.
Through research at Joslin Diabetes Center and elsewhere, scientists only recently have come to realize that insulin receptors are present on all tissues of the body, including the brain, and may affect the function of these tissues. Furthermore, various research findings have suggested that disruption of the insulin signaling system may occur in such disorders as Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease. In fact, at least one large European study found people with diabetes to be at least twice as likely to develop Alzheimers disease as someone without the disease. The risk was even higher among those people with diabetes taking insulin.
Marge Dwyer | EurekAlert!
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