Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers add new drug prophylactic option against flu

28.01.2004


Didn’t get your flu shot this season? A study published in the February 1 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases supports the efficacy of an adjunct to influenza vaccination.



Researchers examined the common influenza season scenario of a household in which a family member is infected with influenza virus. They found that when the family member with influenza was treated with the antiviral drug oseltamivir, post-exposure oseltamivir prophylaxis of all other family members significantly reduced the frequency of virus transmission and illness in the household. Because households are important sites of influenza virus transmission, these results have implications for the management of influenza outbreaks in the community.

The prospective, open-label, randomized study was conducted in multiple centers in Europe and North America by Frederick G. Hayden, MD, of the University of Virginia and colleagues. They studied a total of 277 households with a suspected influenza introduction during the 2000-2001 season. These households had 298 ill index cases, 62% of whom were shown to be influenza-infected, and 812 contacts aged 1 year or older. In all households, the ill index member received a five-day course of oseltamivir treatment. In one-half of these households, the contacts received post-exposure prophylaxis with once daily oseltamivir for 10 days; in the other half, the household contacts received treatment only if they developed symptoms of illness. The researchers found that post-exposure prophylaxis combined with treatment of the ill household member was more effective in preventing subsequent influenza illness in contacts than treating the ill family member only. For all enrolled households, the protective efficacy of the post-exposure prophylaxis strategy was 63%, and prophylaxis reduced the number of individual contacts with laboratory-confirmed influenza illness by 73%.


Among other notable findings, the authors reported that oseltamivir was generally well tolerated in children and adults, although associated with some nausea and vomiting, and provided protection against illnesses caused by both influenza A and influenza B viruses. Oseltamivir use was not associated with transmission of drug-resistant virus, which had been a problem with some other antiviral drugs, the M2 protein inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine, when used for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. However, early occurrence of illness in this study indicated that the treatment must be initiated quickly for optimal protection.

Dr. Hayden and colleagues noted that although oseltamivir post-exposure prophylaxis for influenza is not a substitute for vaccination, it may be valuable in certain situations because it affords immediate protection. They added that such situations include if vaccines are not available, in conjunction with vaccination late in the influenza season, before vaccine has induced an immune response, or if there is no immune response to the vaccine.


Founded in 1904, The Journal of Infectious Diseases is the premier publication in the Western Hemisphere for original research on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases; on the microbes that cause them; and on disorders of host immune mechanisms. Articles in JID include research results from microbiology, immunology, epidemiology, and related disciplines. JID is published under the auspices of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), based in Alexandria, Va., a professional society representing more than 7,500 physicians and scientists who specialize in infectious diseases.

Diana Olson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.idsociety.org/

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Investigators may unlock mystery of how staph cells dodge the body's immune system
22.09.2017 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

nachricht Monitoring the heart's mitochondria to predict cardiac arrest?
21.09.2017 | Boston Children's Hospital

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity

22.09.2017 | Life Sciences

Penn first in world to treat patient with new radiation technology

22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering

Calculating quietness

22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>