Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New TB vaccine shows promise in HIV infection

07.11.2003


An innovative vaccine against tuberculosis has shown promise in persons with HIV, researchers from Dartmouth Medical School and the National Public Health Institute of Finland report in the Nov. 7 issue of the journal AIDS.


An international team led by DMS infectious disease expert Dr. C. Fordham von Reyn, professor of medicine, found that the new booster, a killed vaccine, enhanced the TB immunity of HIV patients. Their weakened immune systems make the current TB vaccine, which is a live vaccine, more risky.

In most countries where TB is widespread, children generally receive a vaccine made from live Mycobacterium bovis, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) that has been used to reduce the risk of TB for more than half century. Despite the widespread use of BCG, TB has been growing dramatically in the world, fueled by the increased susceptibility of HIV-infected people to TB.

TB remains the largest cause of death worldwide from any single infectious disease, according to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which calls it "the major attributable cause of death" in HIV/AIDS patients.



"Since there is no evidence that the current BCG vaccine protects patients with HIV against TB, we have been working on a new strategy to immunize persons with HIV against TB, safely and effectively," said von Reyn.

In a "back to the future" approach, the investigators revived a strategy used successfully prior to BCG: administration of killed vaccines against TB. The DMS-led team dusted off the concept to employ a multiple dose series of a contemporary killed mycobacterial vaccine to prevent TB in a particularly vulnerable and ever growing group of patients.

The study was done in Finland where BCG vaccine is routinely administered at birth. A cohort of 39 HIV patients, mainly men, were divided into two groups to receive a five-dose course of the killed vaccine, Mycobacterium vaccae, or a control vaccine for Hepatitis B. Parallel studies were also conducted on HIV- negative subjects.

"The multiple-dose course of the inactivated vaccine boosted immunity against TB both in those with HIV and those without TB," von Reyn said. "The vaccine was also safe and did not adversely affect the patients’ underlying HIV infection."

The study served as the basis for a large-scale trial Dartmouth researchers have been conducting since 2001 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania with Muhimbili Hospital Medical Center. The five-year $3 million NIH funded study is the only efficacy trial of a new TB vaccine currently under way in the world. The Tanzania trial will enroll more than 2000 HIV-infected patients to determine if the boosted immunity detected in the Finnish study actually reduces the risk of tuberculosis among HIV infected people in Tanzania at high risk of the disease.


###
First author of the article is Dr. Jenni Vuola of the National Public Health Institute of Finland. Co-authors include Dr. Matti Ristola from Helsinki University Central Hospital, Dr. Bernard Cole, associate professor of community and family medicine at DMS and Susan Tvaroha at DMS. The M. vaccae vaccine is produced by SR Pharma in London.

Andy Nordhoff | EurekAlert!

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht One gene closer to regenerative therapy for muscular disorders
01.06.2017 | Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

nachricht The gut microbiota plays a key role in treatment with classic diabetes medication
01.06.2017 | University of Gothenburg

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>