Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New TB vaccine shows promise in HIV infection

07.11.2003


An innovative vaccine against tuberculosis has shown promise in persons with HIV, researchers from Dartmouth Medical School and the National Public Health Institute of Finland report in the Nov. 7 issue of the journal AIDS.


An international team led by DMS infectious disease expert Dr. C. Fordham von Reyn, professor of medicine, found that the new booster, a killed vaccine, enhanced the TB immunity of HIV patients. Their weakened immune systems make the current TB vaccine, which is a live vaccine, more risky.

In most countries where TB is widespread, children generally receive a vaccine made from live Mycobacterium bovis, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) that has been used to reduce the risk of TB for more than half century. Despite the widespread use of BCG, TB has been growing dramatically in the world, fueled by the increased susceptibility of HIV-infected people to TB.

TB remains the largest cause of death worldwide from any single infectious disease, according to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which calls it "the major attributable cause of death" in HIV/AIDS patients.



"Since there is no evidence that the current BCG vaccine protects patients with HIV against TB, we have been working on a new strategy to immunize persons with HIV against TB, safely and effectively," said von Reyn.

In a "back to the future" approach, the investigators revived a strategy used successfully prior to BCG: administration of killed vaccines against TB. The DMS-led team dusted off the concept to employ a multiple dose series of a contemporary killed mycobacterial vaccine to prevent TB in a particularly vulnerable and ever growing group of patients.

The study was done in Finland where BCG vaccine is routinely administered at birth. A cohort of 39 HIV patients, mainly men, were divided into two groups to receive a five-dose course of the killed vaccine, Mycobacterium vaccae, or a control vaccine for Hepatitis B. Parallel studies were also conducted on HIV- negative subjects.

"The multiple-dose course of the inactivated vaccine boosted immunity against TB both in those with HIV and those without TB," von Reyn said. "The vaccine was also safe and did not adversely affect the patients’ underlying HIV infection."

The study served as the basis for a large-scale trial Dartmouth researchers have been conducting since 2001 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania with Muhimbili Hospital Medical Center. The five-year $3 million NIH funded study is the only efficacy trial of a new TB vaccine currently under way in the world. The Tanzania trial will enroll more than 2000 HIV-infected patients to determine if the boosted immunity detected in the Finnish study actually reduces the risk of tuberculosis among HIV infected people in Tanzania at high risk of the disease.


###
First author of the article is Dr. Jenni Vuola of the National Public Health Institute of Finland. Co-authors include Dr. Matti Ristola from Helsinki University Central Hospital, Dr. Bernard Cole, associate professor of community and family medicine at DMS and Susan Tvaroha at DMS. The M. vaccae vaccine is produced by SR Pharma in London.

Andy Nordhoff | EurekAlert!

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Plasmonic biosensors enable development of new easy-to-use health tests
14.12.2017 | Aalto University

nachricht ASU scientists develop new, rapid pipeline for antimicrobials
14.12.2017 | Arizona State University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

Im Focus: Successful Mechanical Testing of Nanowires

With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong

Light-weight and simultaneously strong – porous metallic nanomaterials promise interesting applications as, for instance, for future aeroplanes with enhanced...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Plasmonic biosensors enable development of new easy-to-use health tests

14.12.2017 | Health and Medicine

New type of smart windows use liquid to switch from clear to reflective

14.12.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

BigH1 -- The key histone for male fertility

14.12.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>