New findings suggest altered kidney regulation of COX-2 occurs at very early stage in obesity-related diabetic nephropathy
In human diabetic patients, an excessive vasoconstrictive and pro-aggregatory thromboxane (TXA2) renal synthesis, along with a decrease in vasodilatory and anti-aggregatory prostaglandin (PGE2) synthesis, has been found to influence kidney function. Prostaglandins and thromboxane are formed by the enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid catalyzed by the cyclooxygenases, COX 1 and COX-2. Recently developed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are targeted to inhibit COX-2 and treat inflammation and arthritic pain. It is not known if the use of NSAIDS may be beneficial for the treatment of kidney disease; however, the upregulation of pro-inflammatory COX-2 and increased production of COX-2 derived metabolites have been implicated in diabetic nephropathy. COX-2 regulation and its association with renal damage are not known in the Obese Zucker rat. A new study tests the hypothesis that altered kidney regulation of COX-2 occurs at a very early stage in the progression of kidney disease.
A New Study
Obesity is a major risk factor that, along with hyperglycemia and hypertension, contributes to the progression of kidney disease. Previous studies in models of Type I diabetes have suggested that COX-2 may contribute to diabetic nephropathy. In this study researchers found increases in renal COX-2 levels and changes in TXA2 and PGE2 levels in the Obese Zucker rat. The changes in TXA2 and PGE2 are similar to those found in the diabetic patient population.
Interestingly, these changes occurred in the Obese Zucker rat at pre-hyperglycemic and pre-hypertensive stages. Renal damage was minimal at 10-12 weeks of age and progressed rapidly towards kidney failure by 20-21 weeks of age. Therefore, during the development of obesity-related diabetes, alternations in COX-2 derived metabolites could contribute to the renal damage associated with this disease. Taken as a whole, these findings suggest that COX-2 inhibitors may be beneficial for the prevention of renal damage in obesity-related type II diabetes.
The American Physiological Society (APS) is one of the worlds most prestigious organizations for physiological scientists. These researchers specialize in understanding the processes and functions by which animals live, and thus ultimately underlie human health and disease. Founded in 1887 the Bethesda, MD-based Society has more than 11,000 members and publishes 3,800 articles in its 14 peer-reviewed journals each year.
EDITORS NOTE: Members of the press are invited to attend the conference and interview the researchers in person or by phone. Please contact Donna Krupa at (703) 527-7357 (office); (703) 967-2751 (cell) or email@example.com (email) for more information.
Meeting Dates: October 1-4, 2003
Radisson Riverfront Hotel and Convention Center, Augusta, GA
Donna Krupa | EurekAlert!
Investigators may unlock mystery of how staph cells dodge the body's immune system
22.09.2017 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Monitoring the heart's mitochondria to predict cardiac arrest?
21.09.2017 | Boston Children's Hospital
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
19.09.2017 | Event News
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
22.09.2017 | Life Sciences
22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering
22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy