Scientists have long held the prevailing view that during HIV infection the depletion of T cells is the result of direct HIV virus–mediated killing. In the September 15 issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Marc Hellerstein and colleagues at the University of California in Berkeley report that it is the chronic activation of the host immune system in response to HIV infection that primarily contributes to T cell loss.
A series of influential studies published in the mid-1990s described the rapid decay of viral load following administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and proposed that HIV infection was associated with a high rate of virus turnover and short lifespan of infected cells. This suggested that HIV infection of susceptible CD4+ T cells led to such high rates of cell death, that compensatory T cell proliferation was inadequate to maintain sufficient T cell numbers and therefore compromised the ability of the immune system to fight the virus.
This view was recently challenged by observations that not only were virus-infected cells dying, but a greater number of uninfected bystander T cells underwent programmed cell death that was not a direct result of HIV infection. Therefore, a new theory has been proposed in which high levels of T cell proliferation reflects a state of chronic immune activation following HIV infection as opposed to simple compensatory proliferation.
Biofilm discovery suggests new way to prevent dangerous infections
23.05.2017 | University of Texas at Austin
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19.05.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.
In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...
Dental plaque and the viscous brown slime in drainpipes are two familiar examples of bacterial biofilms. Removing such bacterial depositions from surfaces is...
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
17.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
23.05.2017 | Life Sciences
23.05.2017 | Medical Engineering