Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

AIDS development can be monitored and predicted

11.09.2003


Total lymphocyte count and hemoglobin concentration lowers at onset of the disease



People with HIV and their physicians could have a less expensive tool to track the progression from HIV infection to AIDS. According to researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, a decline in the total lymphocyte counts (TLC) and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration in the blood may be used to monitor a patient’s disease status. Currently, HIV RNA and CD4+ cells in the blood are measured. However, specialized equipment and training for lab technicians makes these measurements expensive. TLC and Hgb measurements are much less expensive and can be obtained by using standard blood tests. "Rapid declines in total lymphocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration prior to AIDS among HIV-1-infected men," appears in the September 2003 issue of the journal AIDS, the official journal of the International AIDS Society.

The study’s lead author, Bryan Lau, a graduate student in the School’s Department of Epidemiology, said, "This study demonstrates that there is a biological event that occurs during the progression of HIV infection leading to declines in TLC and Hgb within individuals. The majority of HIV individuals who develop AIDS experience a rapid decline in total lymphocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration that starts about one and one-half years prior to developing AIDS. The decline in these two markers in individuals who develop AIDS shows that this is an important event in the pathogenesis of the disease."


The study authors analyzed longitudinal measurements of TLC and Hgb in 3,299 homosexual and bisexual men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) from 1984-1991. The researchers found that for many years after HIV infection, TLC and Hgb markers are stable and provide little information about HIV disease progression to AIDS.

However, as HIV disease progresses, TLC and Hgb begin to decline rapidly. A TLC decline greater than 10 percent per year and Hgb decline greater than 2.2 percent per year was present in over 77 percent of the study participants who developed AIDS and absent from over 78 percent of individuals who did not develop AIDS.

To further support their findings, the researchers explain in their study that current World Health Organization guidelines suggest the use of TLC measurements for monitoring an individual’s HIV infection in developing countries if CD4+ cell counts are not known. Hgb levels have also been shown to have an association with progression from asymptomatic HIV infection to AIDS.

Currently, in order to begin antiretroviral therapy for asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals, measurements of HIV RNA levels and CD4+ lymphocyte counts in the blood are required. These measurements are expensive and require technological expertise and equipment that is typically not available in developing countries.

Joseph Margolick, a contributing author and professor in the School’s Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, said, "These results could be very useful for regions with scarce heath-care resources as an alternative way of identifying individuals who should receive drug therapy for HIV infection. We believe further research in appropriate populations is warranted."


Stephen J. Gange, Adjunct Associate Professor in the School’s Department of Epidemiology, and Joseph B. Margolick, Professor in the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, co-authored the study. Additional co-authors are John P. Phair, with Northwestern University Medical School, Sharon A. Riddler, with the University of Pittsburgh, and Roger Detels, with UCLA’s School of Public Health.

The MACS is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Cancer Institute.

Kenna Brigham | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhsph.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht How cancer metastasis happens: Researchers reveal a key mechanism
19.01.2018 | Weill Cornell Medicine

nachricht Researchers identify new way to unmask melanoma cells to the immune system
17.01.2018 | Duke University Medical Center

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Artificial agent designs quantum experiments

On the way to an intelligent laboratory, physicists from Innsbruck and Vienna present an artificial agent that autonomously designs quantum experiments. In initial experiments, the system has independently (re)discovered experimental techniques that are nowadays standard in modern quantum optical laboratories. This shows how machines could play a more creative role in research in the future.

We carry smartphones in our pockets, the streets are dotted with semi-autonomous cars, but in the research laboratory experiments are still being designed by...

Im Focus: Scientists decipher key principle behind reaction of metalloenzymes

So-called pre-distorted states accelerate photochemical reactions too

What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...

Im Focus: The first precise measurement of a single molecule's effective charge

For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.

Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...

Im Focus: Paradigm shift in Paris: Encouraging an holistic view of laser machining

At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.

No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...

Im Focus: Room-temperature multiferroic thin films and their properties

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.

Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

10th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Münster, 10-11 April 2018

08.01.2018 | Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Let the good tubes roll

19.01.2018 | Materials Sciences

How cancer metastasis happens: Researchers reveal a key mechanism

19.01.2018 | Health and Medicine

Meteoritic stardust unlocks timing of supernova dust formation

19.01.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>