A single protein acts as a key switch point in frontline immune system reactions to both bacterial and viral infections, according to a report published online today in the journal Nature. In determining how this protein functions, a team of scientists supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) can now explain why certain symptoms, such as fever, occur regardless of the cause of infection.
Bruce Beutler, M.D., of The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA, who led the team, says, "This protein, Trif, stands at a crossroads in the mouse innate immune system and, by inference, we believe in the human immune system as well." A clear understanding of Trifs role in sparking inflammation gives scientists an obvious target for drugs designed to combat the runaway inflammation characteristic of many infectious and immune-mediated diseases.
Mammals, including humans, employ a family of proteins (called toll-like receptors, or TLRs) in first-line defense against bacteria and viruses. One protein, TLR-3, is activated by viruses, while another, TLR-4, responds to molecules frequently contained in bacterial cell walls. The TLRs are an important part of the innate immune system, the all-purpose "first-responder" arm of the immune system. Once activated by invading pathogens, TLRs relay the alarm to other actors in the immune system. In short order, the innate immune system responds with a surge of chemicals that together cause inflammation, fever and other responses to infection or injury.
Anne A. Oplinger | EurekAlert!
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Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
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Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
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Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
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