We do not feel the nitrogen of air, and scientists do not believe that under normal pressure nitrogen can affect human organisms. However, being under water or in the altitude chamber nitrogen produces a different effect. Once the pressure is increased about four times, simulating the pressure which exists at the 30- meter depth, the first signs of intoxication usually show up. They are the same that accompany alcoholic intoxication: unreasonable gaiety, talkativeness, depressed attention, impaired self-control. When the diver descends even deeper, he can easily overlook a danger and experiences difficulty in controlling his movements. Being intoxicated the diver may forget where he is and what he is doing, and may even endanger his life. It has been recognized for almost 70 years that it is nitrogen that causes this effect, and the phenomenon itself has been called nitrogen narcosis. In order to avoid nitrogen effect, physiologists have developed mixtures for breathing at sea depths. In these mixtures relatively inexpensive nitrogen have been replaced by very expensive helium.
Nevertheless, that did not solve all the problems. Nitrogen narcosis effects may even occur with regular dives at depths of 30-40 meters, where helium is not used in the majority of cases. Therefore, it was required to develop a method which would increase the level if resistance to nitrogen narcosis effects. Such method is under way in the Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, St. Petersburg, under the guidance of Alexander Vjotosh. The researchers exposed laboratory rats to higher temperatures or kept them in the air with insufficient oxygen content, and the rats became more resistant to the nitrogen narcosis effects – they managed to pass appropriate tests with better results. After a special training course the resistance increased about one and a half times. If divers were to take this training course, they would be exposed to a lesser risk working underwater. The rats’ resistance to nitrogen narcosis was also one and a half times raised due to quercetin action in cases when they had been injected the substance eight hours before the diving.
The researchers from St. Petersburg have come forward with a new hypothesis explaining the nitrogen action under pressure. The generally adopted point of view is that nitrogen dissolves in cells’ membranes, causing the change of their characteristics, thus violating nerve impulses formation or conduct. The physiologists from the Sechenov Institute have assumed that under the nitrogen increased pressure in the organisms there are formed additional portions of the active compound, which damages cell proteins.
Sergey Komarov | Informnauka
NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures
17.11.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
High speed video recording precisely measures blood cell velocity
15.11.2017 | ITMO University
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine
17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses