Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

In vitro study suggests acrylamide causes DNA damage

18.06.2003


Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen that has been found in a variety of fried and starch-based foods, appears to exert its mutagenicity (the capacity to induce mutations) by forming DNA adducts and introducing genetic mutations, according to a study in the June 18 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. DNA adducts can interfere with the DNA replication process and lead to mutations and, in theory, to tumor formation.



Exposure to acrylamide has been shown to increase the incidence of a variety of cancers in rats and mice. Although no one knows how this process works, one theory is that acrylamide triggers mutagenesis by damaging DNA.

Ahmad Besaratinia, Ph.D., and Gerd P. Pfeifer, Ph.D., of the Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope National Medical Center in Duarte, Calif., tested this hypothesis in mammalian cells in vitro by exposing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (connective tissue cells) that carried an artificially inserted gene known as a transgene to either acrylamide or a control, double-distilled water.


Cells treated with acrylamide had more DNA adduct formation at specific spots along the transgene than control-treated cells. Treatment of the cells with low (micromolar) concentrations of acrylamide was associated with a twofold increase in the number of mutations in the transgene compared with the control-treated cells. This mutation rate was similar to that of cells treated with the known carcinogen BPDE at considerably lower concentrations. However, treatment of the cells with higher concentrations of acrylamide (e.g., in the millimolar range) resulted in a mutation rate similar to that of untreated cells, possibly because cells die when exposed to such high concentrations of acrylamide.

The researchers also found that acrylamide exposure resulted in the formation of a spectrum of genetic mutations that were different from those mutations formed spontaneously. They point out, however, that the sites of acrylamide-induced DNA adducts did not match the pattern of acrylamide-induced mutations, suggesting that not all DNA adducts formed by acrylamide resulted in mutations.

The researchers note that the role of acrylamide in embryonic mouse fibroblasts may differ from its role in a grown animal. They acknowledge that their study was conducted on a transgene rather than a native gene and say that their findings cannot yet be applied to humans.

In an accompanying editorial, Fredrik Granath, Ph.D., of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, and Margareta Törnqvist, Ph.D., of Stockholm University in Sweden, point out that the estimated average concentration of acrylamide in the blood is approximately 6 nanomolar, a concentration that is five times lower than the lowest concentration used in this study. "Studying effects at such low exposures is very difficult even in in vitro studies," they say. Considering the low statistical power in epidemiologic studies, they say that "clarification and improvement of the risk assessment of acrylamide will be obtained primarily from experimental studies."

They say that the estimated individual cancer risk from dietary acrylamide is quite small and they would not recommend changing nutritional guidelines. "However, the situation for vulnerable groups, e.g., pregnant women and children, should always be carefully considered," they write.


Contact: Greg Hughes, City of Hope National Medical Center, 626-359-8111 Ext. 65263; fax: 626-301-8462, ghughes@coh.org.

Editorial: Margareta Törnqvist, Stockholm University 46-8163-769, 46-703-736771 (cell), margareta.tornqvist@mk.su.se or Fredrik Granath (after June 18), Karolinska Institute, 46-8517-79182, fredrik.granath@mep.ki.se.

Besaratinia A, Pfeifer GP. Weak yet distinct mutagenicity of acrylamide in mammalian cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:889–96.

Editorial: Granath F, Törnqvist M. Who knows whether acrylamide in food is hazardous to humans? J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:842–3.

Note: The Journal of the National Cancer Institute is published by Oxford University Press and is not affiliated with the National Cancer Institute. Attribution to the Journal of the National Cancer Institute is requested in all news coverage.

Linda Wang | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://jncicancerspectrum.oupjournals.org/

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht How cancer metastasis happens: Researchers reveal a key mechanism
19.01.2018 | Weill Cornell Medicine

nachricht Researchers identify new way to unmask melanoma cells to the immune system
17.01.2018 | Duke University Medical Center

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Artificial agent designs quantum experiments

On the way to an intelligent laboratory, physicists from Innsbruck and Vienna present an artificial agent that autonomously designs quantum experiments. In initial experiments, the system has independently (re)discovered experimental techniques that are nowadays standard in modern quantum optical laboratories. This shows how machines could play a more creative role in research in the future.

We carry smartphones in our pockets, the streets are dotted with semi-autonomous cars, but in the research laboratory experiments are still being designed by...

Im Focus: Scientists decipher key principle behind reaction of metalloenzymes

So-called pre-distorted states accelerate photochemical reactions too

What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...

Im Focus: The first precise measurement of a single molecule's effective charge

For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.

Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...

Im Focus: Paradigm shift in Paris: Encouraging an holistic view of laser machining

At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.

No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...

Im Focus: Room-temperature multiferroic thin films and their properties

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.

Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

10th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Münster, 10-11 April 2018

08.01.2018 | Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Multifunctional Platform for the Delivery of Gene Therapeutics

22.01.2018 | Life Sciences

The world's most powerful acoustic tractor beam could pave the way for levitating humans

22.01.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Siberian scientists learned how to reduce harmful emissions from HPPs

22.01.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>