Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Transplantation tolerance: Of mice and men

17.06.2003


Little is known about the effect of an individual’s immune history on their response to a donated tissue transplant. An important study by researchers at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, reveals that individuals harboring virally-induced memory T cells that are cross reactive with donor antigens are resistant to conventional strategies designed to induce transplant tolerance.



Enormous progress has been achieved in the field of transplantation during the past 3 decades, due in large part to the availability of effective immunosuppressive drugs. Such drugs are designed to sufficiently suppress the recipient immune response to the donor tissue without compromising the ability to fight infection. In the 50 years since the first description of tolerance to transplanted tissue in mice, researchers have strived to induce tolerance in human transplant recipients. So why the discrepancy?

In the June 16 issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Christian Larsen and his colleagues demonstrated that a critical distinction between pathogen-free mice used in transplant research and nonhuman primates or human patients is their acquired immune history. The authors demonstrate that a specific threshold of memory cells is necessary to promote rejection and CD8+ central memory cells are principally responsible for mediating rejection. The data reveal that the transplantation field may have underappreciated the barrier that memory to previous viral infections in the recipient serves in the induction of tolerance.


"This study makes a strong argument for the importance of previous antigen exposure in determining the outcome of protocols designed to induce tolerance" says Harvard surgeon David Sachs, Director of the Transplantation Biology Research Center at Massachusetts General Hospital. "The data clearly support the practice of testing for potential cellular as well as humoral sensitization against the donor prior to carrying out such protocols clinically, even in cases for which there has been no known exposure to the donor antigens". Dr. Sachs continues to explore the more general question of why it is more difficult to induce tolerance in large versus small animals in his accompanying commentary. We should expect that differences to prior antigen exposure will be only one of the potential reasons for marked differences that are encountered between mice and primates in attempts to induce tolerance to transplanted tissue. Elucidating the mechanisms of these relationships can only increase the chances of achieving complete tolerance to tissue transplantation in humans.

AUTHOR CONTACT:
Christian P. Larsen
Emory University, School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Phone: 404-727-8466
Fax: 404-727-3660
Email: clarsen@emory.org

View the PDF of this article at: https://www.the-jci.org/press/17477.pdf

ACCOMPANYING COMMENTARY:
Tolerance: Of mice and men
AUTHOR CONTACT:
David H. Sachs
Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Phone: 617-726-4065
Fax: 617-726-4067
Email: sachs@helix.mgh.harvard.edu

View the PDF of this commentary at: https://www.the-jci.org/press/18926.pdf

Brooke Grindlinger | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jci.org/
http://www.the-jci.org/press/17477.pdf
http://www.the-jci.org/press/18926.pdf

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht World first: Massive thrombosis removed during early pregnancy
20.07.2017 | Universitätsspital Bern

nachricht Therapy of preterm birth in sight?
19.07.2017 | Universitätsspital Bern

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

Im Focus: On the way to a biological alternative

A bacterial enzyme enables reactions that open up alternatives to key industrial chemical processes

The research team of Prof. Dr. Oliver Einsle at the University of Freiburg's Institute of Biochemistry has long been exploring the functioning of nitrogenase....

Im Focus: The 1 trillion tonne iceberg

Larsen C Ice Shelf rift finally breaks through

A one trillion tonne iceberg - one of the biggest ever recorded -- has calved away from the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica, after a rift in the ice,...

Im Focus: Laser-cooled ions contribute to better understanding of friction

Physics supports biology: Researchers from PTB have developed a model system to investigate friction phenomena with atomic precision

Friction: what you want from car brakes, otherwise rather a nuisance. In any case, it is useful to know as precisely as possible how friction phenomena arise –...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

The technology with a feel for feelings

12.07.2017 | Event News

Leipzig HTP-Forum discusses "hydrothermal processes" as a key technology for a biobased economy

12.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers create new technique for manipulating polarization of terahertz radiation

20.07.2017 | Information Technology

High-tech sensing illuminates concrete stress testing

20.07.2017 | Materials Sciences

First direct observation and measurement of ultra-fast moving vortices in superconductors

20.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>