Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New type of vaccine against nicotine addiction developed by TSRI scientists

21.05.2003


Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have designed a new way to make vaccines against drugs of abuse that could become a valuable tool for treating addiction by helping the body clear the drug from the bloodstream.



The latest vaccine they created using this approach induces the body to clear nicotine.

"These new vaccines greatly suppress the reinforcing aspects of the drug," says principal investigator Kim D. Janda, Ph.D. "Blocking it before it gets to the brain--that’s the key."


The structure and design of the nicotine vaccine are described in an article that will be published in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Chemical Society. Research Associate Michael M. Meijler, Ph.D., who is the article’s lead author, synthesized this vaccine under the guidance of Janda, who holds the Ely R. Callaway, Jr. Chair in Chemistry and is an investigator in The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology at TSRI.

Having shown the vaccine’s effectiveness in laboratory models, Meijler and Janda have now reformulated the vaccine for investigation for use in human trials. Eventually, this sort of vaccine would be given to people undergoing smoking cessation programs to aid in their recovery.

Many believe that people continue to smoke because tobacco contains nicotine, which is an addictive chemical. Many smoking cessation strategies, in fact, provide cigarette addicts with nicotine from sources other than tobacco--such as patches or gum.

Janda and his laboratory, however, have taken an "immunopharmacotherapy" approach. That is, they have designed a drug that stimulates the immune system to clear the nicotine from the system. They based this work on previous successes Janda had in developing a vaccine for another addictive drug--cocaine--which is currently in clinical trials.

The new idea that they have developed is to take a chemical that resembles nicotine and use it to induce an active immune response. In this immune response, the body produces antibodies against nicotine that can neutralize it in the bloodstream. If a smoker later smokes a cigarette, the antibodies will clear the nicotine from the system before it reaches the brain.

Developing a nicotine vaccine proved difficult. At first, Janda and his colleagues were not able to induce an effective immune response as they had previously with cocaine. Then Janda and Meijler realized that the difference could be that cocaine is a relatively inflexible molecule where nicotine has a flexible axis that allows it to adopt multiple shapes.

Janda and Meijler had been designing a vaccine that was equally flexible, and so they decided to make one that was rigid and resembled only one form of nicotine.

"These [induced] antibodies make a much more focused immune response," says Meijler. In fact, he adds, the vaccine is better because it induced a larger antibody response and the antibodies themselves bound more tightly (with higher affinity) to the nicotine.

Furthermore, adds Janda, "This could be a general method for vaccine development for drugs of abuse--period."

The research article "A New Strategy for Improved Vaccines Using Conformationally Constrained Haptens" is authored by Michael M. Meijler, Masayuki Matsushita, Lawrence J. Altobell, III, Peter Wirsching, and Kim D. Janda and will appear in the June 18, 2003 issue of the Journal of the American Chemical Society. The research was funded by The Skaggs Institute for Research.

Supporting Material: Statistics on Smoking and Public Health
Smoking is a major health problem in the United States, and hundreds of thousands of Americans die each year from smoking-related lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, and chronic airway obstruction.

Although the percentage of U.S. residents who smoke has declined steadily in the United States since the mid-1960s, about 22.8 percent of the total adult population still smokes, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). San Diego and Orange County are two of the five metropolitan areas with the nation’s lowest smoking rates. The San Diego regional rate was 15.2 percent.

Nevertheless, smoking-related cancer is still a great cause for concern in Southern California and in the rest of the nation. In a 2002 report, the CDC estimated that from 1995 to 1999, smoking killed more than 440,000 people in the United States each year and caused more than $150 billion in annual health-related economic losses.



For supporting statistics on tobacco use and related mortality, please see: A 2001 report from the CDC: "Cigarette Smoking in 99 Metropolitan Areas--United States, 2000," MMWR 50(49); December 14, 2001. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5049a3.htm.

A 2002 report from the CDC: "Annual Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Economic Costs--United States, 19951999," MMWR 51(14) April 12, 2002. http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/research_data/economics/mmwr5114.highlights.htm.

Jason Bardi | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.scripps.edu/
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5049a3.htm
http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/research_data/economics/mmwr5114.highlights.htm

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht New High-Performance Center Translational Medical Engineering
26.04.2017 | Fraunhofer ITEM

nachricht A promising target for kidney fibrosis
21.04.2017 | Brigham and Women's Hospital

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientist invents way to trigger artificial photosynthesis to clean air

26.04.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ammonium nitrogen input increases the synthesis of anticarcinogenic compounds in broccoli

26.04.2017 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

SwRI-led team discovers lull in Mars' giant impact history

26.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>