Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists Image Soft Tissues With New X-Ray Technique

20.05.2003


A conventional synchrotron radiograph of a foot (A) and the same foot shown with Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (B). Note the greater variety of soft tissues visible with in the DEI frame.


Provides more information than conventional x-rays or other scanning methods

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, in collaboration with researchers at Rush Medical College, have demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel x-ray imaging technology to visualize soft tissues of the human foot that are not visible with conventional x-rays. The technique, called Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (DEI), provides all of the information imparted by conventional x-rays as well as detailed information on soft tissues previously accessible only with additional scanning methods such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study appears in the May 2003 issue of the Journal of Anatomy.

“We’ve previously shown that this technique can visualize tumors in breast tissue and cartilage in human knee and ankle joints, but this is the first time we have shown it to be effective at visualizing a variety of soft tissues, such as skin, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, adipose pads, and even collagen and large blood vessels,” said physicist Zhong Zhong, who works at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven Lab, where the current work was done. “The ability to visualize such a range of soft tissues as well as bone and other hard tissues with just one technique has many potential applications in diagnosis,” Zhong said.



The technique makes use of the intense beams of x-rays available at synchrotron sources such as the NSLS. These beams are thousands of times brighter than those produced by conventional x-ray tubes, and provide enough monochromatic x-ray flux for imaging even after selection of a single wavelength.

In conventional x-ray images, the various shades of gray are produced because different tissues absorb different amounts of x-ray energy. “This works great in imaging bones and other calcified tissues,” said Zhong, “but less satisfactorily in imaging soft-tissues that have similar and low x-ray absorption.” In DEI, the scientists are more interested in the x-rays that pass through the tissue and how they bend and scatter as they do, because these properties vary more subtly between different types of tissue.

To analyze a specimen with DEI, the scientists place a perfect silicon crystal between the sample and the image detector. As x-rays from the synchrotron go through the sample, they bend, or refract, and scatter different amounts depending on the composition and microscopic structure of the tissue in the sample. Then, when the variously bent rays exit the sample and strike the silicon crystal, they are diffracted by different amounts according to their angular spread. So the silicon crystal helps convert the subtle differences in scattering angles produced by the different tissues into intensity differences, which can then be readily detected by a conventional x-ray detector. This results in extremely detailed images that are sensitive to soft tissue types.

For example, in the current study, a conventional radiograph of a human toe shows bones and a calcified blood vessel; except for the faint “shadow” of the surrounding soft tissues and calcification within a tendon, no other structures are visible. The DEI scan of the same specimen in the same position clearly shows skin, the fat pads beneath the bones, the blood vessel, the nail plate, and some tendons, which are clearly distinguishable from the surrounding connective tissue. Within one of the fat pads, even the organizational architecture of the collagen framework is visible. Moreover, the bones take on a three dimensional appearance because of the detail available in the scans.

In the current study, the DEI images were produced with a lower x-ray dose than that used for diagnostic x-rays and no contrast agent was needed, making the technique viable as a potential screening tool, said Zhong.

The scientists are still working on how to scale down the DEI design so that it can be used in a clinical setting. But they say this should be feasible and that the technique may eventually greatly enhance mammography and become increasingly important in the detection of other soft tissue pathologies such as osteoarthritis, breast cancer, and lung cancer.

Collaborators at Rush Medical College include Carol Muehleman, Jun Li, and Klaus Kuettner. This research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, GlaxoSmithKline, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy, which supports basic research in a variety of scientific fields.

Karen McNulty Walsh, | Brookhaven National Laboratory
Further information:
http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/2003/bnlpr051303.htm
http://www.rushu.rush.edu/medcol/

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease
22.08.2017 | Duke University

nachricht Once invincible superbug squashed by 'superteam' of antibiotics
22.08.2017 | University at Buffalo

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

What the world's tiniest 'monster truck' reveals

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Treating arthritis with algae

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Witnessing turbulent motion in the atmosphere of a distant star

23.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>