A team of researchers headed by Douglas R. Cavener, professor and head of the Department of Biology at Penn State University, has announced important findings about the causes of three human diseases: severe, juvenile-onset diabetes; osteoporosis; and Wolcott-Rallison Syndrome, a rare condition whose sufferers exhibit a combination of diabetes, retarded growth, and skeletal abnormalities. Their work suggests promising lines of research for the therapeutic treatment of these diseases. The work will be described in an article in the August 2003 issue of the journal Endocrinology.
Three mice that are littermates (siblings of the same age). The two mice on the left (one partially hiding under the big mouse) are dwarf mice caused by the Perk mutation. They are less than half the size of the mouse on the right, which is normal.
Micro x-ray computed tomography (microCT) images of the tibia of normal and Perk mutant mice. The mutant shows thin cortical bone with deformations and gaping holes. "If it wasnt for muscle and connective tissue to hold these fragile bones together, these mice would fall apart," Cavener says.
Over several years, Caveners team has developed and investigated a particular strain of "knockout" mice that are genetically unable to produce the enzyme PERK (pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase). Cavener and his team hypothesize that the PERK enzyme is a specific or global regulator of protein synthesis, which means that the knockout mice are especially useful in unraveling complex physiological and developmental processes. "We are now able to investigate what happens when a particular gene is missing, to see what functions go wrong. Then we work backwards to fill in mechanisms that link the genotype to the phenotype" or the observable outcome, Cavener says.
PERK knockout mice have a very low survival rate because the biomedical problems caused by the absence of the PERK enzyme are so severe. Fully 63 percent die during gestation or the first few days of life which can be traced to failures in the creation or delivery of specific proteins.
Barbara K. Kennedy | EurekAlert!
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The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.
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With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
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For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.
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At AKL’16, the International Laser Technology Congress held in May this year, interest in the topic of process control was greater than expected. Appropriately, the event was also used to launch the Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing. The group provides a forum for representatives from industry and research to initiate pre-competitive projects and discuss issues such as standards, potential cost savings and feasibility.
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Every three years, the plastics industry gathers at K, the international trade fair for plastics and rubber in Düsseldorf. The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will also be attending again and presenting many innovative technologies, such as for joining plastics and metals using ultrashort pulse lasers. From October 19 to 26, you can find the Fraunhofer ILT at the joint Fraunhofer booth SC01 in Hall 7.
K is the world’s largest trade fair for the plastics and rubber industry. As in previous years, the organizers are expecting 3,000 exhibitors and more than...
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23.09.2016 | Life Sciences
23.09.2016 | Health and Medicine
23.09.2016 | Life Sciences