Results of a study by researchers at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center (DHMC) and Dartmouth Thayer School of Engineering could have implications for choosing which patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms should have surgery and which ones should simply have follow-up with noninvasive studies.
In an article published in the April issue of the Journal of Vascular Surgery, Dr. Mark Fillinger and colleagues describe a new noninvasive method for evaluating abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). They found that the new method – examining aneurysm wall stress – predicts AAA rupture risk better than aneurysm diameter, which has been used to predict rupture risk for over 40 years.
The multidisciplinary study was sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. In the study, conducted at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, over 100 patients who had computed tomography scans (CT scans) during the course of routine care had AAA “wall stress analysis”. The CT scan is processed through a series of computer programs, including an engineering process called finite element analysis. Finite element analysis breaks the structure into thousands of tiny elements so a computer can calculate the wall stress using the three-dimensional shape of the AAA (from the CT scan), the patient’s blood pressure, and the tissue properties of typical AAAs. The result is a computer-generated “stress map” that displays the aneurysm wall stress (the force trying to pull the aneurysm apart and cause rupture).
Tamsin Stubbs | DHMC
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Controlling electronic current is essential to modern electronics, as data and signals are transferred by streams of electrons which are controlled at high speed. Demands on transmission speeds are also increasing as technology develops. Scientists from the Chair of Laser Physics and the Chair of Applied Physics at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have succeeded in switching on a current with a desired direction in graphene using a single laser pulse within a femtosecond ¬¬ – a femtosecond corresponds to the millionth part of a billionth of a second. This is more than a thousand times faster compared to the most efficient transistors today.
Graphene is up to the job
At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
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