Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study of monkey species that fights off AIDS may lead to new treatments for humans

18.03.2003


A deactivation of the immune system in patients infected with HIV could be one way to inhibit progression to the immunodeficiency diseases associated with AIDS, researchers from UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and Emory University report.



A study comparing the effects of immunodeficiency virus in humans to its effects in sooty mangabey monkeys, which do not become ill when infected, revealed two major differences in the monkeys’ responses to the infection. The findings could open the door to groundbreaking approaches to AIDS treatments, said Dr. Donald Sodora, an assistant professor of internal medicine at UT Southwestern who contributed to the study.

The findings are being published online today at www.immunity.com and will appear in a future edition of Immunity.


"The mangabeys have just as much virus in their system as during pathogenic HIV infection of humans. The riddle is, they don’t get sick," Sodora said. "The idea is, you look at the monkeys and you try to unravel that riddle. And as you unravel it, you can begin to develop new and innovative ideas that have not been explored by others for preventing the progression of AIDS in HIV-infected patients."

Mangabeys exposed to long-term, high-levels of SIV – the version of immunodeficiency virus found in primates – remain healthy and free of any sign of immune deficiency. Researchers found that this lack of symptoms occurred because, unlike humans, these primates have only low-level immune system responses when infected with SIV and do not lose their ability to make new T cells.

T cells, a cornerstone of the immune system, assist other immune cells in eliminating infection. SIV infection in primates and HIV infection in humans both cause a depletion of these cells.

In contrast to the mangabeys, humans infected with HIV respond with an aberrant activation of the immune system that leads to further destruction of these cells. This depletion is then compounded by the inability of the infected individual to adequately replace the T cells, Sodora said.

"What we call AIDS is actually a combination of the direct effects of HIV replication and the indirect effects brought about by the immune system dysregulation," he said. "In contrast, the absence of the indirect effects in the SIV infected mangabeys can at least be partially attributed to a reduced activation of the immune system, and an ability to maintain continued renewal of T cells."

These findings influence the way in which one might think about treating an AIDS patient or developing a therapy for AIDS, Sodora said.

"It has relevance with regard to how we think about people getting sick with AIDS," he said. "One potential treatment might be an approach to deactivate the immune system, in a very strategic and careful way."

HIV and AIDS began to be identified in the mid-1980s. The virus had been transmitted to humans from primates among which SIV is prevalent. The two types of HIV that exist today originated from two variations of SIV present in chimpanzees (HIV-1) and mangabeys (HIV-2). In both species of primates, the host becomes infected with SIV and replicates the virus in its own T cells, but does not become ill.

Dr. Richard Koup, former chief of infectious diseases at UT Southwestern who is now at the National Institutes of Health Vaccine Research Center, and researchers Guido Silvestri and Mark Feinberg of Atlanta’s Emory University School of Medicine also contributed to the NIH-funded study.

Rachel Horton | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.swmed.edu/

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Monitoring the heart's mitochondria to predict cardiac arrest?
21.09.2017 | Boston Children's Hospital

nachricht Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex
21.09.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Hirnforschung

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

Im Focus: Fast, convenient & standardized: New lab innovation for automated tissue engineering & drug

MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems Holding GmbH about commercial use of a multi-well tissue plate for automated and reliable tissue engineering & drug testing.

MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Comet or asteroid? Hubble discovers that a unique object is a binary

21.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Cnidarians remotely control bacteria

21.09.2017 | Life Sciences

Monitoring the heart's mitochondria to predict cardiac arrest?

21.09.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>