Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Good things, small packages

13.03.2003


Binghamton University electronics engineering center charts new directions at ’micro’ and ’nano’ scale



Imagine a diagnostic "pill" that doctors can navigate through your system to collect video and chemical data about what’s going on in your body. Or how about a space age, two-ply, self-assembling organic-inorganic thin film that makes expensive mirrors and lenses such as those used by NASA virtually indestructible.

Each of these items is at the heart of real-life research projects that involve research faculty associated with Binghamton University’s Integrated Electronics Engineering Center and both fall in the realm of infotonics, the field resulting from the combined disciplines of photonics and microsystems.


In the case of the navigable "pill," BU researchers will be performing the mechanical analysis and testing of a prototype being developed by the City University of New York. The nanometer-thick thin film for lenses will improve on existing organic coatings through the development of a bilayer film, with a moisture retardant inorganic layer. It is the focus of a cross-disciplinary BU team including chemists Wayne Jones and Scott Oliver and mechanical engineers Junghyun Cho and Bahgat Sammakia. Both projects are both funded by the Infotonics Technology Center, a not-for-profit consortium of 20 universities and three major New York state optical companies: Eastman Kodak, Corning Incorporated, and Xerox. Binghamton researchers know that small-scale electronics manufacturing means big business. The range of research support and reliability testing services provided by the IEEC has attracted some of the country’s largest electronics companies, including IBM, ADI, and GE Corporate Research, as well as regional companies such as Universal Instruments, Lockheed Martin and British Airways Electronics - to the center’s membership roles.

Even while maintaining its ongoing commitment to support traditional electronics manufacturing, the IEEC’s move to small-scale electronics manufacturing research is part of its major mission to help the United States regain pre-eminence in the electronics industry and to create and sustain regional jobs in electronics packaging. It’s a big time challenge that will rely heavily on small-scale solutions according to Bahgat Sammakia, who has led the IEEC, a state Center for Advanced Technology, for the last four years.

"There is no question that electronics manufacturing in the United States and worldwide is changing," Sammakia said. "Many jobs are leaving the country and will not come back. Whenever a product becomes a very straightforward commodity that can be manufactured anywhere, it will be manufactured elsewhere.”

That cost-based reality creates a "change or perish" environment for the US electronics industry. Cheaper off-shore labor has led not only to a steady decline in traditional US electronics manufacturing jobs, but also to the accompanying loss of revenue to sustain research and development critical to the development of next-generation products.

Without the availability of next-generation products, companies stand little chance of survival in today’s competitive and technology-hungry marketplace, Sammakia said.

With electronics consumers most interested in buying smaller and smaller devices with more and more functionality, research that spawns and supports the development and manufacture of such products is a crucial niche university-based research centers such as the IEEC need to fill, he said.

"The advantage for companies to stay in the United States is not going to be for lower cost manufacturing, it’s going to be for advanced technology."

That means that as part of its standing commitment to foster development of the US electronics industry, the IEEC needs to move into new areas where micro- and nanotechnologies are the clear wave of the future, he said. These areas will be driven by new development in small-scale electronics, including microelectric mechanical systems or MEMS, optical MEMS, known as MOEMS, and nanostructured materials.

"All of which requires a very different infrastructure than we have today, both from the research and the manufacturing perspective," Sammakia said. "The infrastructure we have today is suitable for objects that are as small as tens of microns, where a micron is 10 -6 meters. The nanostructure scale we are moving to is tens of nanometers, or 10 -9 meters, so we are talking about three orders of magnitude smaller."

Though perspective at the nanometer scale can be hard to come by, if you figure that the old standby for size comparisons, the human hair, is 50,000 to 100,000 nanometers in width, you’ll have some idea what microelectronics are really all about.

Moving to small scale creates a host of new challenges for electronics researchers and manufacturers, including the need for cleaner more controlled environments, Sammakia said. At this scale, an errant dust particle can completely obliterate from view the elements researchers are most trying to look at.

"The good news" Sammakia noted, "is that an assembly line may require considerably less space than a traditional assembly line."

Working at this scale also requires vibration-free facilities and significantly more accurate instrumentation as well as a willingness to deal with change. While basic physics are understood at the nanostructure scale, materials and structures can behave completely differently at small scale than they do at large scale, and a defect that could be ignored at the micron level, probably will not be tolerable at nanometer scale, Sammakia said. It’s likely that even the most basic assumptions about how materials behave will need to be rethought.

"When we model things at the large scale we tend to ignore some effects and consider only the ones we feel are relevant," he noted. "When we change scales, these assumptions are not good anymore. We have to look at the behavior of materials and structures in a completely fresh way. So it really requires not just a new physical infrastructure, but also a new intellectual infrastructure.

All these changes contribute to a stunning paradigm shift in the electronics industry. Ironically, the case of the photonics industry, which focuses on the manufacture of devices that rely on laser, fiber optics, lenses, mirrors and optical sensors for detecting, capturing, managing and manipulating information associated with light, helps to illuminate the issue.

Whereas the costs of packaging account for only about 10 to 20 percent of the total cost of producing a traditional silicon electronic device, photonics packaging accounts for about 60 to 80 percent of the total cost of a photonics device.

"Transmitting digital information in the form of light signals is faster, cheaper and more secure," Sammakia said. "But packaging is expensive because assembly processes are not mature."

That’s because although the manufacture of silicon devices as been honed to a high-yield, high-throughput, and highly automated process in the past decade, photonic device assembly, which is in its infancy, is by and large a time-consuming manual process.

"Somebody’s sitting there manually moving two micron-sized wires until they get a good signal, and then they basically try to glue these cables together without losing the signal. It’s very time and labor intensive," Sammakia said.

Sammakia recognizes that small scale is going to be the big deal in electronics in the future and that the shift offers US researchers like those in the IEEC an important window of opportunity to enhance their research position.

"Nobody really has the complete infrastructure yet. I think whoever develops this set of capabilities, both physical and intellectual, is going to have a lot of opportunities to conduct world-class research," he said.

It also significantly improves the likelihood that their work will have a major economic impact.

Full membership in IEEC costs about $60,000 per year and gives companies access to the center’s research capabilities, including the expertise of student and faculty researchers, diagnostic equipment, literature, laboratories and the broad scope of intellectual property gathered or produced by the center. With its full-members and more than 50 partners at lesser participating or associate member levels, the IEEC annually contributes $30 million to the economic base of the Southern Tier of New York.

Susan Barker | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.binghamton.edu/

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos
21.11.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

nachricht NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures
17.11.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

From Hannover around the world and to the Mars: LZH delivers laser for ExoMars 2020

21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Borophene shines alone as 2-D plasmonic material

21.11.2017 | Materials Sciences

Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos

21.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>