Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Antibodies critical for fighting West Nile Virus infection

30.01.2003


Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that immune cells called B cells and the antibodies they produce play a critical early role in defending the body against West Nile Virus. The results are published in the February issue of the Journal of Virology.



Mice that lacked B cells and antibodies were completely unable to combat the virus. They developed serious brain and spinal-cord infection and ultimately died.

"These findings may help explain why the elderly and others with weakened immunity are most likely to develop serious disease when infected by the virus," says study leader Michael S. Diamond, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of medicine, of molecular microbiology and of pathology and immunology.


West Nile Virus first emerged in the eastern United States in 1999 and has spread steadily westward, reaching the West Coast last year. It is carried by mosquitoes and causes encephalitis, a brain inflammation. The virus affects mainly birds, especially crows and jays, but it also can cause disease in horses, humans and other mammals.

In humans, West Nile Virus causes serious illness in only a small proportion of infected people. Last year, doctors reported more than 3,500 cases of infection, with 5 to 10 percent of those resulting in serious illness or death.

Diamond and his colleagues infected a strain of immune-deficient mice that lacked two important components of the immune system -- T cells and B cells -- and compared the animals’ response to mice with normal immunity. T cells coordinate immune responses and kill infected cells; B cells produce antibodies that attack viruses before they infect cells.

The immune-deficient mice became sick and died even with low doses of the virus. However, they could resist infection if given a dose of B cells after being injected with the virus.

"We were surprised by how susceptible the mice were when antibodies were missing," says Diamond. "Just one viral particle -- an exceedingly low dose -- was enough to kill the mice."

To confirm the importance of B cells and antibodies in defending against West Nile Virus, the researchers then gave the virus to a group of immune-deficient mice that lacked only B cells and antibodies, again comparing their response to mice with normal immunity. At day two, both the B-cell deficient mice and normal mice had equal levels of the virus in the blood. The levels declined thereafter in the normal mice and were undetectable by day six. In the B-cell deficient mice, however, viral levels continued to increase, with 500-fold higher levels by day four.

From this, the investigators conclude that B cells and antibodies appear to be essential for controlling the infection.

"Our findings suggest – but this is just speculation – that humans who have weak antibody responses early during infection are more likely to develop serious disease," says Diamond. "Those are the people we’d want to target when a vaccine or treatment becomes available."

Diamond and his colleagues now are studying how antibodies control infection and what other parts of the immune system are involved.


Diamond MS, Shrestha B, Marri A, Mahan D, Engle M. B cells and antibody play critical roles in the immediate defense of disseminated infection by West Nile Encephalitis Virus. Journal of Virology, February. 2003.

Funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases supported this research.

The full-time and volunteer faculty of Washington University School of Medicine are the physicians and surgeons of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient-care institutions in the nation. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.

Darrell Ward | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://medinfo.wustl.edu/

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Custom-tailored strategy against glioblastomas
26.09.2016 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht New leukemia treatment offers hope
23.09.2016 | King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New welding process joins dissimilar sheets better

Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.

Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of...

Im Focus: First quantum photonic circuit with electrically driven light source

Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.

Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...

Im Focus: OLED microdisplays in data glasses for improved human-machine interaction

The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.

“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...

Im Focus: Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...

Im Focus: Complex hardmetal tools out of the 3D printer

For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.

Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

European Health Forum Gastein 2016 kicks off today

28.09.2016 | Event News

Laser use for neurosurgery and biofabrication - LaserForum 2016 focuses on medical technology

27.09.2016 | Event News

Experts from industry and academia discuss the future mobile telecommunications standard 5G

23.09.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

New imaging technique in Alzheimer’s disease - opens up possibilities for new drug development

28.09.2016 | Medical Engineering

Innovate coating extends the life of materials for industrial use

28.09.2016 | Materials Sciences

Blockchain Set to Transform the Financial Services Market

28.09.2016 | Business and Finance

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>