Increased bone mass in a calcitonin knockout mouse full of surprises
Bone is in a constant state of remodeling, during which osteoclasts remove old bone (resorption) and osteoblasts form new bone (formation). Calcitonin is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland and inhibits bone resorption. Following menopause, the rate of bone loss is accelerated, however women with post-menopausal osteoporosis that are treated with calcitonin (by injection or nasal spray) demonstrate increased bone mass and strength, in addition to a decrease in the rate of bone fractures. Following alternative processing, the gene encoding calcitonin (CT/CGRP) also encodes a second peptide: calcitonin gene-related peptide-a (CGRPa), however the role of this peptide in bone metabolism has not been clearly defined.
To better understand the role of calcitonin and CGRP-a in bone metabolism Robert Gagel and colleagues at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, USA, created mice in which the CT/CGRP gene had been deleted. Given that both calcitonin and CGRP have been shown to inhibit bone resorption and CGRP is known to stimulate bone formation, the authors predicted that there would be either no effect of this deletion on bone mass, or there could be some bone loss.
Serious children’s infections also spreading in Switzerland
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New vaccine production could improve flu shot accuracy
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Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers
Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...
Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.
At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...
3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects
A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...
Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.
For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...
What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.
To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...
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