Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New evidence linking smoking and lung cancer in women

10.12.2002


A Mayo Clinic study of more than 41,000 postmenopausal women in Iowa provides new evidence that the most common type of lung cancer in women is more closely linked to smoking cigarettes than previously recognized. The findings of the study will be published in the Dec. 15, 2002 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.



Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer death in women for more than a decade. In 2000, about 68,000 American women died of lung cancer. That’s compared to about 40,000 women who died from breast cancer.

While the lung cancer-tobacco connection is well established, researchers have suspected that adenocarcinoma -- which accounts for over 40 percent of lung cancer in women -- was linked to other, unknown risk factors. That’s because adenocarcinoma, more so than other forms of lung cancer, strikes women who have never smoked.


The Mayo Clinic study used a statistical model to compare the incidence rates of the three types of lung cancer: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma.

"We found adenocarcinoma of the lung is more strongly associated with smoking than previously recognized," says Ping Yang, M.D., Ph.D., a Mayo Clinic epidemiologist and lead researcher on the study.

For example, among 10,000 women who do not smoke, each year three women will develop any lung cancer, two of them being adenocarcinoma. Among the same number of women who smoked a pack of cigarettes a day for 20 to 39 years, 30 will develop lung cancer each year: 14 adenocarcinoma, 8 squamous cell and 8 small cell lung cancer. All three types of lung cancer are very serious illnesses.

"Knowing the very strong association between smoking and adenocarinoma is important because researchers were beginning to look for other causes and ways to prevent it," says Dr. Yang. "The best advice remains: don’t smoke cigarettes."

How the data was gathered

In 1986, a questionnaire was mailed to approximately 100,000 randomly selected women in Iowa between the ages of 55 and 69. The 41,836 respondents were surveyed again in 1987, 1989, 1992 and 1997. They responded to questions about their health and smoking history. Lung cancer cases were identified through the State Health Registry of Iowa, part of a National Cancer Institutes research program.

Through 1998, 598 women in the study were identified with lung cancer: 234 with adenocarcinoma, 115 with squamous carcinoma, 123 with small cell carcinoma and 126 with other subtypes.

Researchers used this data in a statistical model to calculate excess risk of lung cancer. Excess risk is the difference in risk between women who smoked and women who never smoked. It can only be calculated in a cohort study -- one that follows large numbers of people for many years -- smokers and those who have never smoked.

"You can’t get an accurate picture of lung cancer risk by just studying smokers," she says. "You need to have reliable data from sizable number of those who have never smoked."

Dr. Yang said questions still remain about why adenocarcinoma strikes nonsmokers more often than other types of lung cancers. "The culprit is very likely to be exposure to second-hand smoke. We could not get a direct answer from this study," says Dr. Yang. "Other Mayo Clinic research projects are further examining the connection between second-hand smoke and adenocarcinoma.


To obtain the latest news releases from Mayo Clinic, go to www.mayoclinic.org/news. MayoClinic.com (www.mayoclinic.com) is available as a resource for your health stories

Mary Lawson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.mayo.edu/
http://www.mayoclinic.org/news

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Fast-tracking T cell therapies with immune-mimicking biomaterials
16.01.2018 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard

nachricht Dengue takes low and slow approach to replication
12.01.2018 | Duke University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Scientists decipher key principle behind reaction of metalloenzymes

So-called pre-distorted states accelerate photochemical reactions too

What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...

Im Focus: The first precise measurement of a single molecule's effective charge

For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.

Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...

Im Focus: Paradigm shift in Paris: Encouraging an holistic view of laser machining

At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.

No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...

Im Focus: Room-temperature multiferroic thin films and their properties

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.

Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...

Im Focus: A thermometer for the oceans

Measurement of noble gases in Antarctic ice cores

The oceans are the largest global heat reservoir. As a result of man-made global warming, the temperature in the global climate system increases; around 90% of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

10th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Münster, 10-11 April 2018

08.01.2018 | Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

White graphene makes ceramics multifunctional

16.01.2018 | Materials Sciences

Breaking bad metals with neutrons

16.01.2018 | Materials Sciences

ISFH-CalTeC is “designated test centre” for the confirmation of solar cell world records

16.01.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>