Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New evidence linking smoking and lung cancer in women

10.12.2002


A Mayo Clinic study of more than 41,000 postmenopausal women in Iowa provides new evidence that the most common type of lung cancer in women is more closely linked to smoking cigarettes than previously recognized. The findings of the study will be published in the Dec. 15, 2002 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.



Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer death in women for more than a decade. In 2000, about 68,000 American women died of lung cancer. That’s compared to about 40,000 women who died from breast cancer.

While the lung cancer-tobacco connection is well established, researchers have suspected that adenocarcinoma -- which accounts for over 40 percent of lung cancer in women -- was linked to other, unknown risk factors. That’s because adenocarcinoma, more so than other forms of lung cancer, strikes women who have never smoked.


The Mayo Clinic study used a statistical model to compare the incidence rates of the three types of lung cancer: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma.

"We found adenocarcinoma of the lung is more strongly associated with smoking than previously recognized," says Ping Yang, M.D., Ph.D., a Mayo Clinic epidemiologist and lead researcher on the study.

For example, among 10,000 women who do not smoke, each year three women will develop any lung cancer, two of them being adenocarcinoma. Among the same number of women who smoked a pack of cigarettes a day for 20 to 39 years, 30 will develop lung cancer each year: 14 adenocarcinoma, 8 squamous cell and 8 small cell lung cancer. All three types of lung cancer are very serious illnesses.

"Knowing the very strong association between smoking and adenocarinoma is important because researchers were beginning to look for other causes and ways to prevent it," says Dr. Yang. "The best advice remains: don’t smoke cigarettes."

How the data was gathered

In 1986, a questionnaire was mailed to approximately 100,000 randomly selected women in Iowa between the ages of 55 and 69. The 41,836 respondents were surveyed again in 1987, 1989, 1992 and 1997. They responded to questions about their health and smoking history. Lung cancer cases were identified through the State Health Registry of Iowa, part of a National Cancer Institutes research program.

Through 1998, 598 women in the study were identified with lung cancer: 234 with adenocarcinoma, 115 with squamous carcinoma, 123 with small cell carcinoma and 126 with other subtypes.

Researchers used this data in a statistical model to calculate excess risk of lung cancer. Excess risk is the difference in risk between women who smoked and women who never smoked. It can only be calculated in a cohort study -- one that follows large numbers of people for many years -- smokers and those who have never smoked.

"You can’t get an accurate picture of lung cancer risk by just studying smokers," she says. "You need to have reliable data from sizable number of those who have never smoked."

Dr. Yang said questions still remain about why adenocarcinoma strikes nonsmokers more often than other types of lung cancers. "The culprit is very likely to be exposure to second-hand smoke. We could not get a direct answer from this study," says Dr. Yang. "Other Mayo Clinic research projects are further examining the connection between second-hand smoke and adenocarcinoma.


To obtain the latest news releases from Mayo Clinic, go to www.mayoclinic.org/news. MayoClinic.com (www.mayoclinic.com) is available as a resource for your health stories

Mary Lawson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.mayo.edu/
http://www.mayoclinic.org/news

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht One gene closer to regenerative therapy for muscular disorders
01.06.2017 | Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

nachricht The gut microbiota plays a key role in treatment with classic diabetes medication
01.06.2017 | University of Gothenburg

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>