Daily consumption of whole grains has been associated in a number of studies with reductions in risk for ischemic stroke, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. The cereal fiber found in whole grains slows digestion, producing a greater feeling of fullness and helping to prevent obesity, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. In a long-term study of male health professionals published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Fung et al. found that men who ate several servings of whole grains per day over a period of years had a substantially reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and that some risk reduction occurred even in men who were obese.
Male health professionals, age 40-75 years without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease were recruited in 1986 and followed for 12 years. The 42,898 participants provided information on diet, health and lifestyle using questionnaires that were mailed to them every 2 years. The classification of "whole grains" included brown rice, dark breads, whole-grain ready-to-eat cereals, and other cereal foods. The subjects were divided into quintiles of whole grain consumption, with the lowest quintile eating 0.4 servings of whole grains per day and the highest quintile averaging 3.2 servings per day. Subjects with higher whole grain intakes tended to be leaner and more physically active, to consume less fat, and were less likely to smoke or have hypertension.
Between 1986 and 1998, 1197 cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed in the group. In comparison to those in the bottom quintile of whole grain intake, those in the top quintile had a 42% decreased risk for type 2 diabetes. Obese persons who were physically active and had high whole grain intakes had a 52% lower risk of diabetes than inactive obese persons in the lowest whole grain intake category. The high fiber content of the bran fraction of whole grains delays gastric emptying and slows the release of glucose into the circulation, thus reducing insulin response after meals. This process may also be responsible for lower obesity levels among high consumers of whole grains because a longer period of satiety follows meals. Magnesium, which has also been shown to improve glucose and insulin response, is present in higher amounts in whole grains than in refined grains.
Elizabeth Horowitz | EurekAlert!
Study suggests possible new target for treating and preventing Alzheimer's
02.12.2016 | Oregon Health & Science University
The first analysis of Ewing's sarcoma methyloma opens doors to new treatments
01.12.2016 | IDIBELL-Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering
02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy