Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Effects of physical training on the heart

28.07.2008
Just like any other muscle, the structure of the heart can be changed through exercise.

However, this adaptation process takes longer than it takes the muscle to revert to its original conditions. Researchers from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) have studied this process in well trained hearts during their investigations to identify pathologies.

Certainly everyone has at some point realized that the efforts at the gym result in increased muscle tone, even if this is not easy to maintain. The same applies to the heart; after enduring intense physical exercise some of its characteristics change. Thanks to modern imaging technology, in particular echocardiography, the study of such characteristics has greatly improved.

In sports medicine, it is very important to know how the heart adapts and regresses to its original state in athletes who train intensively. The information of the regression of the heart to a normal status when the training stimulus is removed is used by sports cardiologists to delimit the physiologic adaptation of the pathology.

In general, all the studies carried out with echocardiography for sports people with high levels of heart adaptation (rowers, cyclists, long distance runners…) have proven that the effects of heart training are increases in the size of the cavities (mainly the left ventricle) and thickness of the myocardium. Nonetheless, the regression of echocardiographic measurements caused by the decrease in training intensity has so far shown contradictory results.

Correctly interpreting the echocardiographic images and understanding the regression of the heart to its initial status is crucial, as there are heart diseases that resemble the natural adaptation caused by training. For this reason, since the initial study with sports athletes, there have been numerous others with the direct or indirect objective of determining the differences between a healthy heart and an unhealthy one.

Researchers from the Laboratorio de Fisiología del Esfuerzo of the Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, in collaboration with British and Italian scientists, have studied the reasons for the inconclusive results, that up to now have resulted from the study of the adaptation and regression caused by training. The main conclusion is that regression is a relevant process when attempting to distinguish the physiological phenomenon that the training represents from the effects of heart diseases.

In the case of a healthy trained heart, it reverts to it's original measurements once the stimulus disappears, as opposed to the case of an ill heart (“Hypertrophy” or “Dilatation of the heart”) that might exhibit similar alterations, but maintains or aggravates these produced changes. When an exaggerated hypertrophy is detected in an examination by sports cardiology services, the treatment to be followed is precisely to change the training regime.

In order to understand the technical limitations of echocardiography in determining the small variations that could be produced when the cavities size and the myocardium thickness are measured, it is convenient to look at some pictures.

Figure one shows an echocardiographic image, to the left in one dimension and to the right in two dimensions. The "area” to be measured is registered in two dimensions, but the measurements are taken in one dimension only. In figure two, a freehand representation of the image shown in figure one is represented. The average variation of thickness demonstrated by the different studies that were analysed range from 1 to 5 mm, which gives an idea of the rigour necessary to evaluate echocardiographies.

Ciencia y Sociedad | alfa
Further information:
http://www.upm.es
http://www.revespcardiol.org
http://www.escardio.org/

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht One gene closer to regenerative therapy for muscular disorders
01.06.2017 | Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

nachricht The gut microbiota plays a key role in treatment with classic diabetes medication
01.06.2017 | University of Gothenburg

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

Im Focus: Optoelectronic Inline Measurement – Accurate to the Nanometer

Germany counts high-precision manufacturing processes among its advantages as a location. It’s not just the aerospace and automotive industries that require almost waste-free, high-precision manufacturing to provide an efficient way of testing the shape and orientation tolerances of products. Since current inline measurement technology not yet provides the required accuracy, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT is collaborating with four renowned industry partners in the INSPIRE project to develop inline sensors with a new accuracy class. Funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the project is scheduled to run until the end of 2019.

New Manufacturing Technologies for New Products

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation

22.06.2017 | Life Sciences

Plant inspiration could lead to flexible electronics

22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences

A rhodium-based catalyst for making organosilicon using less precious metal

22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>