Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study finds link between small birth size and changes to the cardiovascular system that predispose to disease in later life

23.07.2008
The research by Dr Alexander Jones and colleagues, published online in Europe’s leading cardiology journal, the European Heart Journal [1] today (Wednesday 23 July), adds to the evidence that adverse environments experienced by the baby before birth and indicated by low birth weight, can cause long-term changes in the heart and blood vessels, leading to heart and blood vessel disease in later life.

So far, the mechanisms involved have been poorly understood, and there has been little research into the alterations that might occur during childhood.

Dr Jones, who was a clinical research fellow at the Medical Research Council’s Epidemiology Resource Centre at the University of Southampton and Southampton General Hospital, UK, at the time of the research (he is now a Clinician Scientist at the UCL Institute of Child Health, London), studied 140 children aged between eight and nine, while they underwent a psychosocial stress test.

Growing evidence suggests that measures of the way the heart and blood vessels function during stress reveal individual characteristics associated with a greater risk of hypertension (high blood pressure) and disease of the heart and blood vessels.

The children had been healthy babies, born in a maternity hospital in Southampton, and were within the normal birth weight range (with an average of 3.56 kg for boys and 3.41 kg for girls). They were asked to perform a public-speaking task involving storytelling followed by mental arithmetic while the performance of their heart and circulation was recorded using electrical sensors.

Dr Jones said: “In boys, we found that the lower their birth weight was, within the normal range, the more likely they were to have a higher vascular resistance – the resistance to flow that has to be overcome to push blood around the circulatory system – and higher blood pressure, particularly 25-30 minutes after the start of the stress test. This probably represents a prolongation of the vascular stress response in these boys.

“In contrast, girls who were smaller at birth did not demonstrate a specific response to stress. They consistently (whether under stress or at rest) showed evidence of greater activity in the sympathetic nervous system – the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions and becomes more active during stress, contributing to the ‘fight or flight’ response.

“This is the first evidence in children of relationships between size at birth and the later function of the heart and blood vessels. The sex differences in these relationships were striking and may eventually lead to a better understanding of why men and women tend to develop high blood pressure and heart or vascular disease at different times in their lives. It suggests that different underlying mechanisms for developing the same disorder may exist in the two sexes but have the same eventual result.”

While the changes in the children’s responses to stress did not show that they had any early indications of disease, Dr Jones said: “We have strong reasons to believe that children with more exaggerated stress responses are more likely to become adults who develop hypertension and go on to develop heart or vascular disease earlier in life than those who do not demonstrate these greater responses.”

A strength of the study was that it was carried out in young children before puberty when it was unlikely that any disease processes would have started that might alter the results – unlike the situation in adults. “Thus, we can be more confident that the differences we are finding represent the very early indicators of processes that underlie later disease,” said Dr Jones.

“By highlighting these specific heart and circulatory changes in the developing child, we may, in the future, be able to develop interventions that target the origins of heart and circulatory diseases. These diseases are the world's biggest killers but their causes are still poorly understood and the vast majority of medical attention is given to their palliation once they have already occurred. I believe my studies and future studies will focus more on childhood in an effort to better understand the processes that lead to disease and to seek to reverse them before it is too late to do anything about it.”

Jacqueline Partarrieu | alfa
Further information:
http://www.escardio.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht How cancer metastasis happens: Researchers reveal a key mechanism
19.01.2018 | Weill Cornell Medicine

nachricht Researchers identify new way to unmask melanoma cells to the immune system
17.01.2018 | Duke University Medical Center

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Optical Nanoscope Allows Imaging of Quantum Dots

Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. In particular, the new method allows the imaging of quantum dots in a semiconductor chip. Together with colleagues from the University of Bochum, scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute reported the findings in the journal Nature Photonics.

Microscopes allow us to see structures that are otherwise invisible to the human eye. However, conventional optical microscopes cannot be used to image...

Im Focus: Artificial agent designs quantum experiments

On the way to an intelligent laboratory, physicists from Innsbruck and Vienna present an artificial agent that autonomously designs quantum experiments. In initial experiments, the system has independently (re)discovered experimental techniques that are nowadays standard in modern quantum optical laboratories. This shows how machines could play a more creative role in research in the future.

We carry smartphones in our pockets, the streets are dotted with semi-autonomous cars, but in the research laboratory experiments are still being designed by...

Im Focus: Scientists decipher key principle behind reaction of metalloenzymes

So-called pre-distorted states accelerate photochemical reactions too

What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...

Im Focus: The first precise measurement of a single molecule's effective charge

For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.

Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...

Im Focus: Paradigm shift in Paris: Encouraging an holistic view of laser machining

At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.

No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

10th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Münster, 10-11 April 2018

08.01.2018 | Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Rutgers scientists discover 'Legos of life'

23.01.2018 | Life Sciences

Seabed mining could destroy ecosystems

23.01.2018 | Earth Sciences

Transportable laser

23.01.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>