Despite two decades of consistent warnings from public health authorities that pregnant women should not drink alcoholic beverages, the vast majority of widely used medical textbooks fail to communicate this message unequivocally, a new study reveals. Many texts, including those published recently, contradict these public health guidelines, researchers report in the August issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
"Medical texts are used for training as well as for reference," observes senior author Mary D. Nettleman, M.D., M.S., from Virginia Commonwealth University. "In turn, training influences physician behavior. Therefore, it is concerning that many distinguished texts fail to provide clear and consistent recommendations about drinking in pregnancy."
Previous research has shown that alcohol consumption by pregnant women is one of the leading preventable causes of birth defects and developmental disabilities, Nettleman explains. Yet when she and her colleague, Karen Q. Loop, reviewed 81 clinical obstetric texts in current use, they found that only 14 contain a consistent recommendation that pregnant women should not drink alcohol. Among the 29 texts published since 1991, only seven consistently recommend abstinence.
More than half of the 81 texts, Nettleman and Loop found, contain at least one statement condoning drinking. Although none of the 29 texts published since 1991 contains a consistent message that drinking is permissible during pregnancy, 15 carry a mixed message, recommending abstinence in one place and stating elsewhere that some level of drinking is permissible.
"Although tolerance toward drinking during pregnancy may be expected in older texts, such tolerance in recent texts was very disturbing," Nettleman says.
Mixed messages, Nettleman added, "are not appropriate because they leave the reader with the impression that abstinence is the official line but a foolish rule made to be broken."
Statements that condone "minimal," "occasional" or "moderate" drinking without defining what these terms mean — found in 22 of the 81 texts — also raise concerns for the researchers. "Vague terms such as [these] are detrimental, not only because they provide no concrete guidance, but because they may have vastly different interpretations according to the social norms in the patients (and perhaps physicians) environments," Nettleman explains.
Some texts, the researchers found, skirt the issue by offering no guidance at all. Nineteen of the 81 texts discuss the topic of alcohol consumption during pregnancy without providing a recommendation, and five books dont address the topic at all.
Nettleman and Loop suspect that the disconnect between what authorities and textbooks recommend stems, at least in part, from the fact that no safe level of drinking during pregnancy has been established. "[M]any textbooks, even recent ones, seem to have interpreted the absence of a safe level to mean that lower levels of drinking are safe and may be permitted," Nettleman observes.
Joe Kuttenkuler | EurekAlert
NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures
17.11.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
High speed video recording precisely measures blood cell velocity
15.11.2017 | ITMO University
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine
17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses