Despite two decades of consistent warnings from public health authorities that pregnant women should not drink alcoholic beverages, the vast majority of widely used medical textbooks fail to communicate this message unequivocally, a new study reveals. Many texts, including those published recently, contradict these public health guidelines, researchers report in the August issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
"Medical texts are used for training as well as for reference," observes senior author Mary D. Nettleman, M.D., M.S., from Virginia Commonwealth University. "In turn, training influences physician behavior. Therefore, it is concerning that many distinguished texts fail to provide clear and consistent recommendations about drinking in pregnancy."
Previous research has shown that alcohol consumption by pregnant women is one of the leading preventable causes of birth defects and developmental disabilities, Nettleman explains. Yet when she and her colleague, Karen Q. Loop, reviewed 81 clinical obstetric texts in current use, they found that only 14 contain a consistent recommendation that pregnant women should not drink alcohol. Among the 29 texts published since 1991, only seven consistently recommend abstinence.
More than half of the 81 texts, Nettleman and Loop found, contain at least one statement condoning drinking. Although none of the 29 texts published since 1991 contains a consistent message that drinking is permissible during pregnancy, 15 carry a mixed message, recommending abstinence in one place and stating elsewhere that some level of drinking is permissible.
"Although tolerance toward drinking during pregnancy may be expected in older texts, such tolerance in recent texts was very disturbing," Nettleman says.
Mixed messages, Nettleman added, "are not appropriate because they leave the reader with the impression that abstinence is the official line but a foolish rule made to be broken."
Statements that condone "minimal," "occasional" or "moderate" drinking without defining what these terms mean — found in 22 of the 81 texts — also raise concerns for the researchers. "Vague terms such as [these] are detrimental, not only because they provide no concrete guidance, but because they may have vastly different interpretations according to the social norms in the patients (and perhaps physicians) environments," Nettleman explains.
Some texts, the researchers found, skirt the issue by offering no guidance at all. Nineteen of the 81 texts discuss the topic of alcohol consumption during pregnancy without providing a recommendation, and five books dont address the topic at all.
Nettleman and Loop suspect that the disconnect between what authorities and textbooks recommend stems, at least in part, from the fact that no safe level of drinking during pregnancy has been established. "[M]any textbooks, even recent ones, seem to have interpreted the absence of a safe level to mean that lower levels of drinking are safe and may be permitted," Nettleman observes.
Joe Kuttenkuler | EurekAlert
New leukemia treatment offers hope
23.09.2016 | King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
Alzheimer’s: Cellular Mechanism Provides Explanation Model for Declining Memory Performance
21.09.2016 | Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen e.V. (DZNE)
The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.
“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...
For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.
Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...
At AKL’16, the International Laser Technology Congress held in May this year, interest in the topic of process control was greater than expected. Appropriately, the event was also used to launch the Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing. The group provides a forum for representatives from industry and research to initiate pre-competitive projects and discuss issues such as standards, potential cost savings and feasibility.
In the age of industry 4.0, laser technology is firmly established within manufacturing. A wide variety of laser techniques – from USP ablation and additive...
Every three years, the plastics industry gathers at K, the international trade fair for plastics and rubber in Düsseldorf. The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will also be attending again and presenting many innovative technologies, such as for joining plastics and metals using ultrashort pulse lasers. From October 19 to 26, you can find the Fraunhofer ILT at the joint Fraunhofer booth SC01 in Hall 7.
K is the world’s largest trade fair for the plastics and rubber industry. As in previous years, the organizers are expecting 3,000 exhibitors and more than...
23.09.2016 | Event News
20.09.2016 | Event News
16.09.2016 | Event News
23.09.2016 | Life Sciences
23.09.2016 | Health and Medicine
23.09.2016 | Life Sciences