Reducing social inequalities in smoking and its health consequences is a public health and political priority. However, little is known about the actual effects of measures to reduce health inequalities in general or about the differential impacts of tobacco control measures in particular.
This systematic review was conducted by researchers from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination at the University of York, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and the universities of Liverpool and Cambridge. The aim was to assess the effects of population tobacco control interventions on social inequalities in smoking.
The review combines 84 previous studies and represents the most comprehensive and robust review to date of the potential effects on heath inequalities of population-level tobacco control interventions and makes an important contribution towards understanding the effects of interventions in different social groups.
In terms of reducing social inequalities in smoking, the researchers found evidence to support increasing the price of tobacco products. However, further increases in tobacco taxation may require extra measures to support cessation among low-income households.
The evidence on restrictions on sales to minors suggests that these may be effective in deterring younger smokers, though their effectiveness depends on enforcement.
Little evidence was found of policies that have the potential to increase inequalities. In particular, no strong evidence was found that smoking restrictions in workplaces and public places are more effective among more advantaged groups.
1. Sian Thomas, Debra Fayter, Kate Misso, David Ogilvie, Mark Petticrew, Amanda Sowden, Margaret Whitehead, and Gill Worthy. Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking: systematic review. Tobacco Control doi:10.1136/tc.2007.023911 (published online 21 April 2008).
The article is available at: http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/onlinefirst.dtl
2. Population-level tobacco control interventions as those applied to populations, groups, areas, jurisdictions or institutions with the aim of changing the social, physical economic or legislative environment to make them less conducive to smoking. This includes interventions such as:• Tobacco crop substitution or diversification
4.CRD is a department of the University of York and is part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). CRD aims to provide decision makers with research-based information about the effects of interventions used in health and social care. For more information: www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd
5. If publishing online, please carry a hyperlink to the CRD website: http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd
Paul Wilson | alfa
New study points the way to therapy for rare cancer that targets the young
22.11.2017 | Rockefeller University
Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos
21.11.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
23.11.2017 | Information Technology
23.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
23.11.2017 | Life Sciences