At the International conference “Invasion and Metastasis” held at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) in Berlin, Dr. David DeNardo from the laboratory of Professor Lisa Coussens from the University of California, San Francisco, USA reported on how tumours use immune cells to grow faster and disseminate in the body.
When germs infiltrate a wound after injury, the body can well defend itself. Immune cells recognize the pathogens and initiate inflammation to limit infection. Attracted by this warning, many different cells of the immune system migrate to the centre of inflammation to help fight off the intruders. The injured area gets hot and red and becomes more sensitive and swollen. When the healing process is completed, inflammation abates and the immune cells withdraw. When some types of immune cells encounter tumour cells, they can also cause inflammation. Compared to normal injury, however, these immune cells often do not withdraw, but rather generate an enduring, chronic inflammation. “Therefore, we call tumours wounds that never heal,” Dr. DeNardo illustrated.
During the healing process, the immune cells attracted to a wound not only combat the invaders, but also produce growth factors and so-called proteases, enzymes that remodel the connective structures between cells. In addition, new blood vessels are formed to provide the injured tissue with oxygen and nutrients. This formation of new blood vessels is known as angiogenesis. „Normally these mechanisms enhance sealing of the wound,” Dr. DeNardo said. “However, cancer cells exploit them for their own interests.”
Growth factors permit tumour cells to continue proliferating when proteases remodel the connective structures between cells and thus enable single cancer cells to disseminate from the original tumour. However, angiogenesis also helps metastases, the dangerous daughters of a primary tumour, to form. The new blood vessels grant single disseminated cancer cells access to the bloodstream much faster.
“Scientists are trying to develop strategies to stop these processes of inflammation and this way,” Dr. DeNardo hopes, “help cancer patients.” It has already been shown that some cancer metastases develop more rarely in patients who regularly take acetylsalicylic acid. This substance inhibits inflammation and thus blocks the processes cancer uses to grow and spread.
Satellites, airport visibility readings shed light on troops' exposure to air pollution
09.12.2016 | Veterans Affairs Research Communications
Oxygen can wake up dormant bacteria for antibiotic attacks
08.12.2016 | Penn State
Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.
Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
09.12.2016 | Life Sciences
09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine