At the International conference “Invasion and Metastasis” held at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) in Berlin, Dr. David DeNardo from the laboratory of Professor Lisa Coussens from the University of California, San Francisco, USA reported on how tumours use immune cells to grow faster and disseminate in the body.
When germs infiltrate a wound after injury, the body can well defend itself. Immune cells recognize the pathogens and initiate inflammation to limit infection. Attracted by this warning, many different cells of the immune system migrate to the centre of inflammation to help fight off the intruders. The injured area gets hot and red and becomes more sensitive and swollen. When the healing process is completed, inflammation abates and the immune cells withdraw. When some types of immune cells encounter tumour cells, they can also cause inflammation. Compared to normal injury, however, these immune cells often do not withdraw, but rather generate an enduring, chronic inflammation. “Therefore, we call tumours wounds that never heal,” Dr. DeNardo illustrated.
During the healing process, the immune cells attracted to a wound not only combat the invaders, but also produce growth factors and so-called proteases, enzymes that remodel the connective structures between cells. In addition, new blood vessels are formed to provide the injured tissue with oxygen and nutrients. This formation of new blood vessels is known as angiogenesis. „Normally these mechanisms enhance sealing of the wound,” Dr. DeNardo said. “However, cancer cells exploit them for their own interests.”
Growth factors permit tumour cells to continue proliferating when proteases remodel the connective structures between cells and thus enable single cancer cells to disseminate from the original tumour. However, angiogenesis also helps metastases, the dangerous daughters of a primary tumour, to form. The new blood vessels grant single disseminated cancer cells access to the bloodstream much faster.
“Scientists are trying to develop strategies to stop these processes of inflammation and this way,” Dr. DeNardo hopes, “help cancer patients.” It has already been shown that some cancer metastases develop more rarely in patients who regularly take acetylsalicylic acid. This substance inhibits inflammation and thus blocks the processes cancer uses to grow and spread.
Millions through license revenues
27.04.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
New High-Performance Center Translational Medical Engineering
26.04.2017 | Fraunhofer ITEM
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
28.04.2017 | Event News
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering
28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
28.04.2017 | Life Sciences