Tuberculosis that takes away lives of two million people remains a very dangerous disease. Physicians all over the world are working to produce efficient tuberculosis vaccines, but their effort has not succeeded yet. All preparations available do not ensure complete protection from the disease.
For example, efficiency of one of the most widespread vaccines – BCG – varies from 80% to 0%. The experimental vaccine, the Novosibirsk researchers are working at, is a DNA fragment that codes the ESAT-6 mycobacterial antigen. Production of such a vaccine became possible after thorough investigation of genomes of mycobacteria – causative agent of tuberculosis – and of a congener bacterium - Mycobacterium bovis.
The majority of existing tuberculosis vaccines represent weakened mycobacteria cultures: a vaccine is supposed to provoke the immune response, but not the disease. The bacteria are weakened by removing from them the genes that are responsible for virulent properties, including the gene that codes the ESAT-6. It is absent from all existing Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine cultures. The Novosibirsk researchers staked specifically on this protein, which should not pose danger by itself .
Having established a proper genetically engineered construction, the researchers surrounded it by a polysacharide covering of polyglucin and spermidine. The covering reliably protects the DNA from enzymes that can destroy it. In the organism, polyglucin gradually decomposes, and the DNA becomes accessible to the immune system cells. The mice were immunized by the obtained preparation for three times. The preparation was injected intramuscularly at a two-week interval. The reference group animals were immunized by polysaccharides and the DNA, which did not contain the vaccine gene.
After vaccination, the mice were observed for 10 more days, and during this period, they did not lose weight and did not show any other symptoms of health impairment. Nevertheless, the animals had to be slaughtered to investigate their immune system reaction. Vaccines should stimulate cell-mediated immunity, and indeed, lymphocyte clones were formed with mice after immunization. The lymphocyte clones started to divide actively in response to introduction of the real ESAT-6 protein, at that the reaction significantly exceeded the background reaction. As for the reference group mice, their lymphocytes did not react to the protein injection. The analysis has proved that specific cell-mediated immunity was formed with vaccinated mice.
This is not a vaccine yet, it is only the first step to its development. As a matter of fact, the step has been successful.
Olga Myznikova | alfa
New vaccine production could improve flu shot accuracy
25.07.2017 | Duke University
Chances to treat childhood dementia
24.07.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg
Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers
Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...
Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.
At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...
3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects
A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...
Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.
For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...
What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.
To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...
21.07.2017 | Event News
19.07.2017 | Event News
12.07.2017 | Event News
25.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
25.07.2017 | Earth Sciences
25.07.2017 | Life Sciences