Copolymer 1, also called glatiramer acetate, is an unusual therapeutic compound, a heterogeneous mix of polypeptides containing the four amino acids Y, E, A, and K in definite ratios but with no uniform sequence. Although its mode of action remains controversial, this preparation clearly helps retard the progression of human multiple sclerosis (MS) and of the related autoimmune condition, studied in mice, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Copolymer 1 is presented on class II MHC molecules, including the HLA-DR2 type that is associated with increased risk of MS. This MHC molecule binds a defined auto-epitope from myelin basic protein (MBP) and presents it to CD4 T cells, initiating an immune response against myelin in the CNS. Fridkis-Hareli et al. reexamined the structure of the DR2 peptide-binding groove and concluded that the selection of amino acids used in Copolymer 1 was far from optimal if the goal was to compete against presentation of MBP peptides. Here they show that YFAK and FAK copolymers, among others, bind DR2 with higher affinity than does YEAK (copolymer 1), allowing them to compete successfully against an endogenous autoantigenic peptide. These formulations were more effective than Copolymer 1 at suppressing the activation of T cells bearing DR2-restricted, MS patient?derived T cell receptors. Crucially, the novel copolymers were also dramatically more effective at suppressing EAE. Thus, mice injected with either a defined antigenic peptide or whole spinal cord homogenate normally initiate inflammatory and cytolytic responses in the CNS. While Copolymer 1 reduced the incidence of this disease and delayed its onset in most cases, several of the novel copolymers prevented it entirely. Given the precedent of Copolymer 1?s safety and efficacy in people with MS, the use of other copolymers, perhaps optimized to target an individual?s MHC haplotype, seems an attractive scenario for MS and perhaps other autoimmune diseases.
John Ashkenas | EurekAlert
Researchers release the brakes on the immune system
18.10.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
Norovirus evades immune system by hiding out in rare gut cells
12.10.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
20.10.2017 | Information Technology
20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research