Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New potential drug target for the treatment of atherosclerosis

06.03.2008
A nuclear receptor protein, known for controlling the ability of cells to burn fat, also exerts powerful anti-inflammatory effects in arteries, suppressing atherosclerosis in mice prone to developing the harmful plaques, according to new research by scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and the Harvard School of Public Health.

Their findings, reported in this week’s online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, offer a new and specific target for the development of drugs that specifically treat cardiovascular complications associated with metabolic syndrome.

“Heart disease is like a ticking clock—it is progressive, relentlessly marching forward accelerated by a mix of high fat diets, inflammation and high blood pressure. We show that PPAR delta offers a kind of genetic shortcut around each of these medical roadblocks,” says Howard Hughes Medical Investigator Ronald M. Evans, Ph.D., a professor in the Salk Institute’s Gene Expression Laboratory, who co-directed the study with Chih-Hao Lee, a professor in the Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases at the Harvard School of Public Health.

“Most people believe cholesterol plays a predominant role in atherosclerosis. Our study suggests that targeting inflammation at lesion sites is just as important,” adds Lee.

Like the Yin and Yang of fat metabolism, PPAR delta — the focus of the current study — and its counterpart PPAR gamma control the storage and burning of fat. PPAR gamma is in charge of storing surplus glucose as fat. When PPAR gamma is stimulated by a drug the body’s response to insulin improves, lowering levels of circulating glucose. Its sibling gene switch, PPAR delta, controls the ability of cells to burn fat. Activating PPAR delta revs up the fat-burning capacity of adipose tissue and muscle, dramatically lowers overall body weight, increases HDL (“the good cholesterol”), reduces circulating triglycerides, and improves hyperglycemia.

“Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in patients with metabolic syndrome, a clustering of obesity-related disorders including insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia,” says postdoctoral researcher and first author Grant D. Barish, M.D. “Since PPAR delta plays a key role in fat metabolism and PPAR delta drugs can protect against obesity, we wanted to know whether activating PPAR delta would protect against atherosclerosis.”

Atherosclerosis or “hardening of the arteries" is a chronic disease in which high cholesterol levels coupled with inflammation lead to the build-up of fatty deposits, called plaque, on the inner walls of arteries. Eventually these plaques can limit blood flow, leading to angina, or they may rupture, resulting in blood clots that block arteries and cause heart attacks or strokes.

When the researchers fed an experimental drug that turns on PPAR delta to genetically altered mice that develop the characteristic plaques at an early age, especially when placed on a high-fat diet, mice developed 25–30 percent fewer plaques. Further studies revealed that PPAR delta not only raises HDL levels but also suppresses the inflammatory response in the artery, dramatically slowing down lesion progression.

Barish and Evans also contributed to a related study, which was led by researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles and published in the same issue of PNAS. Using a different mouse model to mimic the development of atherosclerosis, the UCLA researchers detected an even more pronounced anti-inflammatory effect that slashed the number of aortic lesions by up to 70 percent.

While Barish, a clinically trained endocrinologist, cautions that extrapolating from mice to humans is inherently fraught with complications, he believes that drugs switching on PPAR delta have the potential to protect against obesity, insulin resistance and their associated cardiovascular risks.

“The discovery that any orally active compound can delay the progression of heart disease is rare, and considering the importance of the problem, we are hopeful that this work can be quickly carried into the clinic,” says Evans.

Researchers who contributed to the study include postdoctoral researchers Annette R. Atkins, Ph.D., Michael Downes, Ph.D., Ling-Wa Chong, Ph.D., Mike Nelson, Ph.D, Yuhua Zou, Ph.D., and Peter Olson, Ph.D., in the Gene Expression Laboratory, Hoosang Hwang, Ph.D., and Heonjoong Kang, Ph.D., at the Seoul National University, Korea, and Linda Curtiss, Ph.D., a professor in the Department of Immunology and Vascular Biology at the Scripps Research Institute.

The Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, is an independent nonprofit organization dedicated to fundamental discoveries in the life sciences, the improvement of human health and the training of future generations of researchers. Jonas Salk, M.D., whose polio vaccine all but eradicated the crippling disease poliomyelitis in 1955, opened the Institute in 1965 with a gift of land from the City of San Diego and the financial support of the March of Dimes.

Gina Kirchweger | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.salk.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht New malaria analysis method reveals disease severity in minutes
14.08.2017 | University of British Columbia

nachricht New type of blood cells work as indicators of autoimmunity
14.08.2017 | Instituto de Medicina Molecular

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Gold shines through properties of nano biosensors

17.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Greenland ice flow likely to speed up: New data assert glaciers move over sediment, which gets more slippery as it gets wetter

17.08.2017 | Earth Sciences

Mars 2020 mission to use smart methods to seek signs of past life

17.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>