Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Efforts to eliminate tuberculosis in US by 2010 fall far short of benchmarks

04.02.2008
The U.S. is likely to fall far short of its benchmark goals toward eliminating tuberculosis as a public health problem, according to data from a nationwide survey.

Latent TB infection (LTBI) prevalence in the 1999-2000 U.S. population (excluding homeless and incarcerated individuals) was found to be 4.2 percent, according to the survey. The current infection rate would have to be 1 percent and decreasing if the U.S. were on course to reach its goal of TB incidence of less than one per million by 2010. These are the first survey-based national LBTI estimates since 1971-1972.

The findings were published in the first issue for February of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, published by the American Thoracic Society.

“Persons with LTBI are not infectious and cannot transmit TB to others, and only 5-10 percent of individuals with LTBI will go on to develop active TB, which is infectious. But because the risk of progression to TB can be substantially reduced by preventive treatment, it is crucial that LTBI by detected and treated,” said lead author Diane Bennett, M.D., M.P.H., of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional series of nationally representative health examination surveys, suggests that of the 11,213,000 with LTBI in the overall U.S. population, only one in four had been diagnosed, and only 13 percent had been prescribed treatment.

"The LTBI rates among non-Hispanic whites, 1.9 percent, is close to that required for TB elimination, but the far higher rates among all other groups make U.S. TB elimination by 2010 unlikely," wrote Dr. Bennett and senior author Kenneth Castro, M.D., M.P.H.

In this study, researchers used data from 1999-2000 on 7,386 participants with TB skin test results. They intentionally over-sampled people with low income, adolescents, people over age 60, African-Americans, and Mexican-Americans so as to allow for separate analyses of these groups. The survey estimated that approximately 11 million individuals had LTBI in 1999-2000. While that represents a marked decline from the early 1970s, it also masks the shifting demographics of those who have LTBI.

Latent TB infections among individuals living below the poverty level, at 6.1 percent, were significantly higher than the 3.3 percent among individuals living above the poverty level. Because the data excludes homeless and incarcerated individuals, who make up much of the U.S. population living below the poverty line, the association may be even stronger than suggested.

Race and ethnicity were also associated with LTBI, even after accounting for socioeconomic status. “Among individuals born in the United States, higher LTBI rates were seen among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans compared with non-Hispanic whites,” wrote Dr. Bennett.

Most striking, however, was the rate of infection among foreign-born individuals. In this survey, 18.7 percent of foreign-born individuals were infected with TB, compared to 1.8 percent of those born in the U.S. In 1999-2000, 6.9 million of the individuals with LTBI were foreign-born, as compared with 4.1 million U.S.-born; only 12 percent of the foreign-born and 16 percent of the U.S.-born had received treatment.

“The higher LTBI rates among some subgroups suggest that specific public health actions should be taken for and with immigrant communities, racial minorities and individuals living in poverty,” Dr. Bennett said. “While LTBI is not infectious and latently infected individuals are not a threat to others, increased outreach for education, diagnosis and provision of appropriate preventive treatment could prevent many future cases of active TB.”

Keely Savoie | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.thoracic.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Laser activated gold pyramids could deliver drugs, DNA into cells without harm
24.03.2017 | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

nachricht What does congenital Zika syndrome look like?
24.03.2017 | University of California - San Diego

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Argon is not the 'dope' for metallic hydrogen

24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Astronomers find unexpected, dust-obscured star formation in distant galaxy

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>