Now, a new optical device developed by a team of electrical and computer engineering students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) can identify the contents of the fluid in an intravenous (IV) line in real-time, offering a promising way to improve the safety of IV drug delivery.
a) The surface of the new drug sensor was made from a flexible plastic sheet covered with gold domes. b) This is a close-up of the sensor's surface taken with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Each of the domes visible in the image is less than one millionth of a meter wide. c) The sensor incorporated with a plastic cell that can be connected in series with IV tubing used to bring drugs to a patient. d) A schematic illustration of the new IV drug sensor. A laser is focused onto the sensor's surface, over which the IV-delivered drugs flow.
Credit: Hsin-Yu Wu, Nano Sensors Group, University of Illinois
The team, led by Prof. Brian T. Cunningham, interim director of the Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory at UIUC, will present its work at The Optical Society's (OSA) Annual Meeting, Frontiers in Optics (FiO) 2013, being held Oct. 6-10 in Orlando, Fla.
The vulnerability of IV drug-delivery systems due to human error is a chief concern in hospital safety, Cunningham said. Errors can include incorrect dosage, unintentional substitution of one drug for another, and co-delivery of incompatible drugs.
"Up to 61 percent of all life-threatening errors during hospitalization are associated with IV drug therapy," Cunningham said, citing a recent report. "So for all the really good things hospitals can do, the data shows that mistakes can occasionally happen."
To approach this problem, Cunningham and colleagues turned to the very small – to structures and processes at the nanoscale (one-billionth of a meter), where novel physical and chemical properties arise. The researchers use a technology called Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), a powerful analytical tool prized for its extreme sensitivity in obtaining molecular signals that can be used to identify chemicals.
To determine the identity of a particular IV medication, researchers shine laser light onto a nanostructured gold surface that contains millions of tiny "nano-domes" that are separated from each other by as little as 10 nanometers. The nano-domes are incorporated into the inner surface of IV tubing, where they are exposed to drugs that are dispersed in liquid. They capture the light scattered from drug molecules that are in contact with the nano-domes and use SERS to determine the drug's molecular signature. Finally, they match the signature to known signatures for the drug in order to confirm the presence of a specific medication in the IV line.
While other groups have demonstrated excellent nanostructured surfaces for SERS, those developed by the Cunningham group are unique because they are inexpensively produced on flexible plastic surfaces by a replica molding process with nanometer scale accuracy.
Early data show that the Cunningham group's system can identify medications including morphine, methadone, phenobarbital, the sedative promethazine, and mitoxantrone, which is used to treat multiple sclerosis. The system is extremely sensitive: it can detect drugs in amounts 100 times lower than the clinically delivered drug concentrations commonly used. So far, the researchers have also shown their system can sense a two-drug combination, which has its own unique signature.
The next step is further evaluation for combinations of up to ten drugs being delivered at the same time. Computer algorithms are also being developed to automatically interpret the SERS spectra, and Cunningham's team reports that the system is now being evaluated for possible commercialization.
Presentation LTh3H.4 "Enhanced Contrast in Chemical and Biological Sensors" takes place Thursday, Oct. 10 at 1:30 p.m. EDT at the Hilton Bonnet Creek.About the Meeting
Lyndsay Meyer | EurekAlert!
Investigators may unlock mystery of how staph cells dodge the body's immune system
22.09.2017 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Monitoring the heart's mitochondria to predict cardiac arrest?
21.09.2017 | Boston Children's Hospital
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
19.09.2017 | Event News
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
22.09.2017 | Life Sciences
22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering
22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy