After evoking much surprise and polite skepticism from anatomists worldwide, a 1995 discovery of a previously unknown connective neck tissue by researchers at the University of Maryland, Baltimore has made Gray¡¯s Anatomy, at last.
The latest Gray's Anatomy, its 150th anniversary edition, is known worldwide as an essential reference for medical students, and, health care professionals.
Delayed tribute for a new discovery is understandable in a field where anatomists have been rigorously studying the human body for more than 500 years, said co-discoverer Gary Hack, DDS, associate professor at the University of Maryland Dental School.
Hack and his colleagues found the ¡®new¡¯ muscle-dura connective tissue while using an unusual dissecting approach to examine head and neck muscles in cadavers. They supported their discovery through digital cadaver images from the National Institutes of Health¡¯s (NIH) Visible Human Project. The newly discovered tissue connects a deep neck muscle to a highly sensitive covering called the dura that covers the brain and spinal cord.
The researchers suggest that their finding may help explain the relationship between muscle tension and headaches. They speculate that the connection may transmit pressure from the neck muscles to the pain-sensitive dura and possibly lead to certain headaches. Gray¡¯s states, ¡°There is usually a soft-tissue attachment to the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane, which itself is firmly attached to the spinal dura in the same area.¡±
Shortly after their discovery¦¡as if surprising the world¡¯s anatomists once was not enough¦¡Hack and his colleagues, while studying muscles that affect chewing, also uncovered a jaw muscle that had never been described as separate and distinct from the many other jaw muscles. Hack thinks the ¡®new¡¯ muscle had been observed many times before, but was thought to be part of known chewing muscles. The new muscle, called sphenomandibularis, may be a fifth chewing muscle.
The muscle has not yet appeared in Gray¡¯s Anatomy. But after a similar chorus of skepticism in some medical journals, the 1 ¨ö inch long muscle has gotten its share of props. Sphenomandibularis is described in the Textbook of Head and Neck Anatomy, one of the leading medical textbooks. It has been recognized by the 1998 Medical and Health Annual of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the book Staging Anatomies:Dissection and Spectacle in Early Stuart Tragedy by Hillary Nunn, in a poem called Claudia Gary Annis, and in articles in The New York Times and Discovery. The muscle was also a clue on the TV show, Jeopardy: ¡°In 1996 Gary Hack discovered the sphenomandibularis...which is one of these.¡± The correct answer: ¡°What is a muscle?¡±
Hack¡¯s team included Baltimore orthodontist Gwendolyn Dunn, DDS; Mi Young Toh, MS, MA, a biomedical imaging researcher at the national Library of Medicine; neurosurgeon Walker Robinson, MD; and Richard Koritzer, DDS, MLA, PhD, an adjunct research associate at the Dental School.
Antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria in pediatric skin infections
17.02.2017 | University of California - San Diego
Tiny magnetic implant offers new drug delivery method
14.02.2017 | University of British Columbia
Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...
The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.
The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...
Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...
Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".
Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...
13.02.2017 | Event News
10.02.2017 | Event News
09.02.2017 | Event News
17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering
17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering
17.02.2017 | Health and Medicine