Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Protein could offer target to reduce lung damage from smoking-caused emphysema

17.05.2011
An international research team has identified a lung protein that appears to play a key role in smoking-related emphysema and have crafted an antibody to block its activity, Indiana University scientists reported.

The research, conducted in mice, suggests that the protein, a cytokine named EMAPII, could provide a target for drugs to treat emphysema, said Irina Petrache, M.D., associate professor of medicine at the Indiana University School of Medicine. The research was posted online May 16 for the June edition of The Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Emphysema, a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that affects nearly 5 million people in the U.S alone, is caused by the destruction of cells that transfer oxygen from the lungs to the blood, along with inflammation in the lungs. Cigarette smoking is the most common cause of emphysema.

The cytokine EMAPII – a type of cell-signaling molecule – is normally part of the process of early lung development. Research had previously found that EMAPII could cause the death of cells that line blood vessels – endothelial cells – and inflammation, but it had not been identified as the molecular culprit at work when cigarette smoking inflicted its damage on the lungs.

"The fact that we could have a single target affecting two major processes made us excited about looking for it in response to smoking," said Dr. Petrache, the Floyd and Reba Smith Investigator in Respiratory Disease at IU.

When the researchers induced emphysema in mice exposed to cigarette smoke, tests showed the mice had elevated levels of the EMAPII cytokine. In other tests, the scientists also found elevated levels of the cytokine in the lungs of patients with COPD.

The researchers also found that the cell death caused by the EMAPII resulted in the release of enzymes that cause more production of EMAPII, causing a vicious cycle of elevated cytokine levels and more cell death.

Members of the research team, led by first author Matthias Clauss, Ph.D., IU associate research professor of cellular and integrative physiology, created an antibody designed to specifically target EMAPII and block its activity. The mice received an inhaled version of the antibody during their third month of smoking. They then were exposed to a fourth month of smoking without the treatment.

The mice receiving the treatment had significantly less cell death and inflammation and improved lung function compared to the smoking mice who did not receive the treatment. Moreover the benefits to the treated mice continued even after the treatment stopped.

Next steps include optimizing the duration of the antibody treatments to determine whether they continue to have an effect after the animals have stopped smoking, she said. Plans also call for work to measure levels of the cytokine in large numbers of human emphysema and COPD patients to determine whether it can be used as a biomarker to measure the presence, severity or type of lung disease.

Considerable research work remains before an EMAPII antibody might be ready for testing in humans, Dr. Petrache said.

Additional researchers on the project included Robert Voswinckel and Sandeep Nikam of the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim, Germany; Gangaraju Rajashekhar, Ninotchka L. Sigua, Natalia I. Rush, Kelly S. Schweitzer, Krzysztof Kamocki, Amanda J. Fisher, Yuan Gu, Bilal Safadi, Homer L. Twigg III and Robert G. Presson of the IU School of Medicine; Heinz Fehrenbach of the Leibniz Center for Medicine and Biosciences, Borstel, Germany; Ali Ö. Yildirim of the German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum, Munich, Germany; Walter C. Hubbard of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore; Rubin M. Tuder of the University of Colorado Health Science Center, Denver; and Sanjay Sethi of New York University School of Medicine.

Funding for the research was provided by the National Institutes of Health, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the German Clusters of Excellence initiative and the European Commission.

Eric Schoch | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.iupui.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Researchers release the brakes on the immune system
18.10.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht Norovirus evades immune system by hiding out in rare gut cells
12.10.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>