Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

In prostate cancer prognosis, telomere length may matter

27.09.2013
Like the plastic caps at the end of shoelaces, telomeres protect — in their case — the interior-gene containing parts of chromosomes that carry a cell's instructional material.

Cancer cells are known to have short telomeres, but just how short they are from cancer cell to cancer cell may be a determining factor in a prostate cancer patient's prognosis, according to a study led by Johns Hopkins scientists.

"Doctors are looking for new ways to accurately predict prostate cancer patients' prognoses, because the current methods that use disease stage, Gleason score, and PSA are not perfect," says Alan Meeker, Ph.D., assistant professor of pathology at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and its Kimmel Cancer Center. "Telomere shortening is common in cancer, but the degree of shortening varies from one cancer cell to another within each patient, and this variability may give us a better idea of how prostate cancers behave."

In the study, described in the October issue of Cancer Discovery, the scientists studied tissue samples from 596 men surgically treated for prostate cancer thought to be confined to the prostate and who were participants in a long-term follow-up study on men's health. Then, they used images of prostate cancer cells and nearby cells called stroma, which include smooth muscle and fibroblast cells, taken from surgery-tissue samples of each patient.

Meeker and his team used a technique they developed called telomere-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (TELI-FISH) to measure telomere length in cancer and stromal cells. The technique uses fluorescent-labeled probes specific for particular locations in DNA, and is commonly used to detect or confirm gene or chromosome abnormalities. In the new study, a fluorescent probe specific for telomere regions was added to the cells, enabling the scientists to identify these specific chromosomal locations under a microscope and measure the level of fluorescence that corresponds to telomere length.

After determining telomere length for more than 40,000 cells among the samples, disease-pattern experts at Johns Hopkins then correlated telomere length measurements in the cancer and stromal cells with each patient's survival.

"Men who had a combination of more variable telomere length among cancer cells and shorter telomere length in stromal cells were more likely to develop metastatic disease and die sooner from their prostate cancer than other men," says Elizabeth Platz, Sc.D., M.P.H., professor of epidemiology at The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Martin D. Abeloff Scholar in Cancer Prevention at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.

In the group of 98 men with more variable telomere length in cancer cells and shorter telomeres in stromal cells, 20 died of their prostate cancer an average of 8.4 years after diagnosis. Accounting for standard prognostic factors, these men were 14 times more likely to die of their prostate cancer compared with another group of 98 men whose telomeres had less variable length among cancer cells and were longer in stromal cells. In this group, only one man died, and that was after 16.5 years.

"Our studies strongly suggest that the combination of telomere length in stromal cells and its variability among prostate cancer cells could be a marker for prostate cancer prognosis," says Platz.

Meeker and Platz are continuing to study additional groups of patients and are now using an automated fluorescence microscope and computer software to speed the collection of tissue images and extract telomere data.

###

Funding for the study was provided by the Department of Defense, the National Institutes of Health's National Cancer Institute (CA58236, CA55075, CA72036, CA133891, CA141298) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (HL35464), the Seraph Foundation, and the Prostate Cancer Foundation.

Tissue samples used for the study were taken from men enrolled in Harvard's Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.

Scientists contributing to the research include Christopher M. Heaphy, Ghil Suk Yoon, Sarah B. Peskoe, Corinne E. Joshu, Thomas K. Lee, Jessica L. Hicks, and Angelo M. De Marzo at Johns Hopkins; and Edward Giovannucci, Stacey A. Kenfield, Lorelei A. Mucci, and Meir J. Stampfer at Harvard School of Public Health.

JOHNS HOPKINS MEDICINE

Johns Hopkins Medicine (JHM), headquartered in Baltimore, Maryland, is a $6.7 billion integrated global health enterprise and one of the leading health care systems in the United States. JHM unites physicians and scientists of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine with the organizations, health professionals and facilities of The Johns Hopkins Hospital and Health System. JHM's mission is to improve the health of the community and the world by setting the standard of excellence in medical education, research and clinical care. Diverse and inclusive, JHM educates medical students, scientists, health care professionals and the public; conducts biomedical research; and provides patient-centered medicine to prevent, diagnose and treat human illness. JHM operates six academic and community hospitals, four suburban health care and surgery centers, more than 38 primary health care outpatient sites and other businesses that care for national and international patients and activities. The Johns Hopkins Hospital, opened in 1889, was ranked number one in the nation for 21 years by U.S. News & World Report.

Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center
Office of Public Affairs
Media Contacts:
Vanessa Wasta
410-614-2916
wasta@jhmi.edu
Amy Mone
410-614-2915
amone@jhmi.edu

Vanessa Wasta | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhmi.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Research offers clues for improved influenza vaccine design
09.04.2018 | NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

nachricht Injecting gene cocktail into mouse pancreas leads to humanlike tumors
06.04.2018 | University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Writing and deleting magnets with lasers

Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...

Im Focus: Gamma-ray flashes from plasma filaments

Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.

The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...

Im Focus: Basel researchers succeed in cultivating cartilage from stem cells

Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. This is made possible by inducing specific molecular processes occurring during embryonic cartilage formation, as researchers from the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the scientific journal PNAS.

Certain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from the bone marrow of adults are considered extremely promising for skeletal tissue regeneration. These adult stem...

Im Focus: Like a wedge in a hinge

Researchers lay groundwork to tailor drugs for new targets in cancer therapy

In the fight against cancer, scientists are developing new drugs to hit tumor cells at so far unused weak points. Such a “sore spot” is the protein complex...

Im Focus: The Future of Ultrafast Solid-State Physics

In an article that appears in the journal “Review of Modern Physics”, researchers at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (LAP) assess the current state of the field of ultrafast physics and consider its implications for future technologies.

Physicists can now control light in both time and space with hitherto unimagined precision. This is particularly true for the ability to generate ultrashort...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

IWOLIA: A conference bringing together German Industrie 4.0 and French Industrie du Futur

09.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Diamond-like carbon is formed differently to what was believed -- machine learning enables development of new model

19.04.2018 | Materials Sciences

Electromagnetic wizardry: Wireless power transfer enhanced by backward signal

19.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Ultrafast electron oscillation and dephasing monitored by attosecond light source

19.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>