Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

In prostate cancer prognosis, telomere length may matter

27.09.2013
Like the plastic caps at the end of shoelaces, telomeres protect — in their case — the interior-gene containing parts of chromosomes that carry a cell's instructional material.

Cancer cells are known to have short telomeres, but just how short they are from cancer cell to cancer cell may be a determining factor in a prostate cancer patient's prognosis, according to a study led by Johns Hopkins scientists.

"Doctors are looking for new ways to accurately predict prostate cancer patients' prognoses, because the current methods that use disease stage, Gleason score, and PSA are not perfect," says Alan Meeker, Ph.D., assistant professor of pathology at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and its Kimmel Cancer Center. "Telomere shortening is common in cancer, but the degree of shortening varies from one cancer cell to another within each patient, and this variability may give us a better idea of how prostate cancers behave."

In the study, described in the October issue of Cancer Discovery, the scientists studied tissue samples from 596 men surgically treated for prostate cancer thought to be confined to the prostate and who were participants in a long-term follow-up study on men's health. Then, they used images of prostate cancer cells and nearby cells called stroma, which include smooth muscle and fibroblast cells, taken from surgery-tissue samples of each patient.

Meeker and his team used a technique they developed called telomere-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (TELI-FISH) to measure telomere length in cancer and stromal cells. The technique uses fluorescent-labeled probes specific for particular locations in DNA, and is commonly used to detect or confirm gene or chromosome abnormalities. In the new study, a fluorescent probe specific for telomere regions was added to the cells, enabling the scientists to identify these specific chromosomal locations under a microscope and measure the level of fluorescence that corresponds to telomere length.

After determining telomere length for more than 40,000 cells among the samples, disease-pattern experts at Johns Hopkins then correlated telomere length measurements in the cancer and stromal cells with each patient's survival.

"Men who had a combination of more variable telomere length among cancer cells and shorter telomere length in stromal cells were more likely to develop metastatic disease and die sooner from their prostate cancer than other men," says Elizabeth Platz, Sc.D., M.P.H., professor of epidemiology at The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Martin D. Abeloff Scholar in Cancer Prevention at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.

In the group of 98 men with more variable telomere length in cancer cells and shorter telomeres in stromal cells, 20 died of their prostate cancer an average of 8.4 years after diagnosis. Accounting for standard prognostic factors, these men were 14 times more likely to die of their prostate cancer compared with another group of 98 men whose telomeres had less variable length among cancer cells and were longer in stromal cells. In this group, only one man died, and that was after 16.5 years.

"Our studies strongly suggest that the combination of telomere length in stromal cells and its variability among prostate cancer cells could be a marker for prostate cancer prognosis," says Platz.

Meeker and Platz are continuing to study additional groups of patients and are now using an automated fluorescence microscope and computer software to speed the collection of tissue images and extract telomere data.

###

Funding for the study was provided by the Department of Defense, the National Institutes of Health's National Cancer Institute (CA58236, CA55075, CA72036, CA133891, CA141298) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (HL35464), the Seraph Foundation, and the Prostate Cancer Foundation.

Tissue samples used for the study were taken from men enrolled in Harvard's Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.

Scientists contributing to the research include Christopher M. Heaphy, Ghil Suk Yoon, Sarah B. Peskoe, Corinne E. Joshu, Thomas K. Lee, Jessica L. Hicks, and Angelo M. De Marzo at Johns Hopkins; and Edward Giovannucci, Stacey A. Kenfield, Lorelei A. Mucci, and Meir J. Stampfer at Harvard School of Public Health.

JOHNS HOPKINS MEDICINE

Johns Hopkins Medicine (JHM), headquartered in Baltimore, Maryland, is a $6.7 billion integrated global health enterprise and one of the leading health care systems in the United States. JHM unites physicians and scientists of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine with the organizations, health professionals and facilities of The Johns Hopkins Hospital and Health System. JHM's mission is to improve the health of the community and the world by setting the standard of excellence in medical education, research and clinical care. Diverse and inclusive, JHM educates medical students, scientists, health care professionals and the public; conducts biomedical research; and provides patient-centered medicine to prevent, diagnose and treat human illness. JHM operates six academic and community hospitals, four suburban health care and surgery centers, more than 38 primary health care outpatient sites and other businesses that care for national and international patients and activities. The Johns Hopkins Hospital, opened in 1889, was ranked number one in the nation for 21 years by U.S. News & World Report.

Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center
Office of Public Affairs
Media Contacts:
Vanessa Wasta
410-614-2916
wasta@jhmi.edu
Amy Mone
410-614-2915
amone@jhmi.edu

Vanessa Wasta | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhmi.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht One gene closer to regenerative therapy for muscular disorders
01.06.2017 | Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

nachricht The gut microbiota plays a key role in treatment with classic diabetes medication
01.06.2017 | University of Gothenburg

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>