Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Penn researchers find Epstein Barr-like virus infects and may cause cancer in dogs

13.03.2012
More than 90 percent of humans have antibodies to the Epstein Barr virus. Best known for causing mononucleosis, or "the kissing disease," the virus has also been implicated in more serious conditions, including Hodgkin's, non-Hodgkin's and Burkitt's lymphomas. Yet little is known about exactly how EBV triggers these diseases.

Now a team of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine and Penn's Perelman School of Medicine has the first evidence that an Epstein Barr-like virus can infect and may also be responsible for causing lymphomas in man's best friend.

The findings suggest that domestic dogs possess a similar biology to humans with respect to EBV infection. That could allow scientists to study dogs to help uncover the mechanisms by which EBV leads to cancer in certain people.

"There are no large-animal spontaneous models of EBV infection and virus-associated disease, and most studies investigating viral disease are performed in non-human primates, which are very expensive," said Nicola Mason, senior author of the study and an assistant professor of medicine and pathobiology at Penn Vet. "Discovering that dogs can get infected with this virus like people do may provide us with a long-sought-after model for EBV-associated disease."

Mason's team at Penn Vet included Shih-Hung Huang, Philip Kozak, Jessica Kim, George Habineza-Ndikuyeze, Charles Meade, Anita Gaurnier-Hausser and Reema Patel. The team worked closely with Erle Robertson, professor of microbiology at the Perelman School of Medicine.

Their work was published online March 8 in the journal Virology.

In humans, the Epstein Barr virus infects B cells. After an acute phase of infection, of which many people are not even aware, the virus goes into a latent phase. Most people show no symptoms during this phase, but, in some, EBV promotes unnatural growth of B cells, which contributes to the development of lymphoma.

Meanwhile, dogs develop lymphomas that share some characteristics with the human equivalents. These conditions are relatively common in certain breeds. In golden retrievers, for instance, one out of every eight dogs develops lymphoma.

Yet, "the paradigm up until now was that EBV only infects humans," Mason said. "It is an extremely successful virus, and most people are infected. Since humans and domestic dogs have cohabited for around 15,000 years, we hypothesized that the virus may have adapted to another host. "

To search for evidence of infection, Mason and colleagues obtained samples of blood from client-owned dogs of various breeds brought to Penn Vet for care. In 48 dogs with lymphoma and 41 without the disease, the researchers first looked to see if the pets had antibodies against proteins specific to the EBV capsid, the protein shell of the virus. The test is nearly identical to one that physicians use to detect exposure to EBV in humans.

The researchers observed that eight of the dogs with lymphoma and three of those without it had high levels of antibodies against EBV proteins, indicating that a portion of the dogs had been exposed to a virus very similar to EBV.

While the presence of antibodies confirms that a dog has been exposed to a virus, the team wanted to know whether the virus had a direct association with the tumors in dogs with lymphoma. Finding viral elements, including DNA, within lymphomas in humans is an indication that the tumor is associated with the virus, therefore Penn researchers looked to see if they could find virus in the dog tumors.

Using the polymerase chain reaction, which amplifies specific DNA sequences, the researchers analyzed lymph nodes of dogs with and without B cell lymphoma. In two dogs with lymphoma, they were able to identify a portion of DNA very similar to a sequence in EBV. They found no evidence of the same DNA in the healthy dogs.

They repeated similar tests with other stretches of EBV DNA, finding evidence of EBV-like DNA in the cancer cells of three of nine dogs with lymphoma. They also identified a virus-associated protein in the malignant lymph nodes of two of nine dogs with lymphoma.

Finally, examining cancerous B cells under an electron microscope revealed what appeared to be viral particles, similar to what what has been seen in the tumor cells of humans with EBV-linked lymphomas.

Taken together, the researchers' discoveries indicate that some dogs are naturally infected with a virus similar or identical to EBV and that, as in humans, the virus appears linked in certain cases with canine lymphomas.

That such a large percentage of humans are exposed to EBV and yet only a small fraction develop cancers indicates that there may be a genetic component to EBV-associated cancer susceptibility.

"With additional studies within certain breeds of dog," Mason said, "we hope to provide insights into genetic factors that may predispose to virus associated lymphoma. Furthermore, this spontaneous dog model may help us evaluate new treatments for EBV-related lymphomas or investigate strategies to prevent those cancers from developing in the first place."

The study was supported by the University of Pennsylvania's Veterinary Center for Infectious Disease, the Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute at the University of Pennsylvania and the National Cancer Institute.

Katherine Unger Baillie | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.upenn.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Speed data for the brain’s navigation system
06.12.2016 | Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen e.V. (DZNE)

nachricht Study suggests possible new target for treating and preventing Alzheimer's
02.12.2016 | Oregon Health & Science University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Simple processing technique could cut cost of organic PV and wearable electronics

06.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

3-D printed kidney phantoms aid nuclear medicine dosing calibration

06.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Robot on demand: Mobile machining of aircraft components with high precision

06.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>