The Champions point out that bacteria use a variety of secretion systems to transport proteins beyond their cell membrane in order to interact with their environment. For bacterial pathogens like TB these systems transport bacterial proteins that promote interaction with host cells, leading to virulent disease.
Previously, researchers have relied on methods that have fused enzymes or fluorescent markers to bacterial proteins to identify bacterial genes that are used to export bacterial proteins into host cells. However, these methods can't be used in the analysis of all bacterial secretion systems, which has limited understanding of the mechanisms that bacteria use to interact with host cells.
The Champions developed a modified form of bacterial proteomics using a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, which directly detects the proteins from whole-colonies by ionizing them with a laser. This research revealed that the method was able to specifically monitor a specialized form protein secretion, which is a major virulence determinant in both mycobacterial pathogens, such as TB, and Gram-positive pathogens, such as Bacillus and Staphylococcus species.
The Champions demonstrated that this new method is applicable to the study of other bacterial protein export systems that could not be effectively studied under previous methods. Their method could also help in the identification of compounds that can inhibit bacterial protein secretion.
The method's importance can be seen in the fact that there are approximately 2 million fatal TB cases a year, mostly in the developing world. Also, antibiotic resistant strains of TB are appearing increasingly.
The Champions' research findings appeared in the Journal Molecular and Cellular Proteomics. The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health and Notre Dame's Center for Rare and Neglected Diseases and capitalization funds from Notre Dame.
Patricia A. Champion | EurekAlert!
Penn vet research identifies new target for taming Ebola
12.01.2017 | University of Pennsylvania
The strange double life of Dab2
10.01.2017 | University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
17.01.2017 | Earth Sciences
17.01.2017 | Materials Sciences
17.01.2017 | Architecture and Construction