Notre Dame research could provide new insights into tuberculosis and other diseases
Researchers Patricia A. Champion and Matthew Champion from the University of Notre Dame's Eck Institute for Global Health have developed a method to directly detect bacterial protein secretion, which could provide new insights into a variety of diseases including tuberculosis.
The Champions point out that bacteria use a variety of secretion systems to transport proteins beyond their cell membrane in order to interact with their environment. For bacterial pathogens like TB these systems transport bacterial proteins that promote interaction with host cells, leading to virulent disease.
Previously, researchers have relied on methods that have fused enzymes or fluorescent markers to bacterial proteins to identify bacterial genes that are used to export bacterial proteins into host cells. However, these methods can't be used in the analysis of all bacterial secretion systems, which has limited understanding of the mechanisms that bacteria use to interact with host cells.
The Champions developed a modified form of bacterial proteomics using a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, which directly detects the proteins from whole-colonies by ionizing them with a laser. This research revealed that the method was able to specifically monitor a specialized form protein secretion, which is a major virulence determinant in both mycobacterial pathogens, such as TB, and Gram-positive pathogens, such as Bacillus and Staphylococcus species.
The Champions demonstrated that this new method is applicable to the study of other bacterial protein export systems that could not be effectively studied under previous methods. Their method could also help in the identification of compounds that can inhibit bacterial protein secretion.
The method's importance can be seen in the fact that there are approximately 2 million fatal TB cases a year, mostly in the developing world. Also, antibiotic resistant strains of TB are appearing increasingly.
The Champions' research findings appeared in the Journal Molecular and Cellular Proteomics. The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health and Notre Dame's Center for Rare and Neglected Diseases and capitalization funds from Notre Dame.
Patricia A. Champion | EurekAlert!
The most recent press releases about innovation >>>
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.
Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...
Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.
Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...
Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.
As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...
Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.
With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...
Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine
Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...