Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New therapeutic target discovered for Alzheimer's disease

18.03.2014

Drug candidate blocks production of disease-causing neurotoxins in mouse models

A team of scientists from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, the Medical University of South Carolina and San Diego-based American Life Science Pharmaceuticals, Inc., report that cathepsin B gene knockout or its reduction by an enzyme inhibitor blocks creation of key neurotoxic pGlu-Aβ peptides linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, the candidate inhibitor drug has been shown to be safe in humans.

The findings, based on AD mouse models and published online in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, support continued development of cysteine protease inhibitors as a new drug target class for AD. "No other therapeutic program is investigating cysteine protease inhibitors for treating AD," said collaborator Vivian Hook, PhD, professor in the UC San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and in the UC San Diego School of Medicine.

Current AD drugs treat some symptoms of the devastating neurological disorder, but none actually slow its progress, prevent or cure it. No new AD drug has been approved in more than a decade.

The researchers focused on cathepsin B production of N-truncated pGlu-Aβ, a peptide or short chain of amino acids, and the blockade of cathepsin B by E64d, a compound shown to inhibit cysteine proteases, a type of enzyme. AD is characterized by accumulation of a variety of Aβ peptides as oligomers and amyloid plaques in the brain, factors involved in neuronal loss and memory deficits over time. These neurotoxic Aβ peptides are created when enzymes cleave a large protein called amyloid precursor protein (APP) into smaller Aβ peptides of varying toxicity. N-truncated pGlu-Aβ has been shown to be among the most neurotoxic of multiple forms of Aβ peptides.

Much AD research has focused on the APP-cutting enzyme BACE1 β-secretase, but its role in producing pGlu-Aβ was unknown. Cathepsin B is an alternative β-secretase which cleaves the wild-type β-secretase site of APP, which is expressed in the major sporadic and many familial forms of AD. Hook and colleagues looked at what happened after gene knockout of BACE1 or cathepsin B. They found that cathepsin B, but not BACE1, produced the highly toxic pGlu-Aβ.

Perhaps most interestingly, the scientists found that E64d, an enzyme inhibitor of cathepsin B, reduced production of pGlu-Aβ and other AD-associated Aβ peptides. Key was the finding that E64d and cathepsin B gene knock out resulted in improved memory deficits in a mouse model of AD.

"This is an exciting finding," said Hook. "It addresses a new target – cathepsin B – and an effective, safe small molecule, E64d, to reduce the pGlu-Aβ that initiates development of the disease's neurotoxicity. No other work in the field has addressed protease inhibition for reducing pGlu-Aβ of AD."

Hook noted that E64d has already been shown to be safe in clinical trials of patients with muscular dystrophy and would, therefore, likely prove safe for treating AD as well. She hopes to launch Phase 1 human clinical trials in the near future with a modified version of the drug candidate.

###

Co-authors include Gregory Hook, American Life Science Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Jin Yu and Mark Kindy, Medical University of South Carolina; and Thomas Toneff, UCSD Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Funding for this research came, in part, from the National Institutes of Health (grants R44AG032784, R01ES016774-02 and R21AG0428), a Veteran's Affairs Merit Review grant, and an Alzheimer's Association award.

Disclosure: Vivian Hook is chair of American Life Science Pharmaceuticals' scientific advisory board and holds equity in the company.

Scott LaFee | EurekAlert!

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht An experimental Alzheimer's drug reverses genetic changes thought to spur the disease
04.05.2016 | Rockefeller University

nachricht Research points to a new treatment for pancreatic cancer
04.05.2016 | Purdue University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nuclear Pores Captured on Film

Using an ultra fast-scanning atomic force microscope, a team of researchers from the University of Basel has filmed “living” nuclear pore complexes at work for the first time. Nuclear pores are molecular machines that control the traffic entering or exiting the cell nucleus. In their article published in Nature Nanotechnology, the researchers explain how the passage of unwanted molecules is prevented by rapidly moving molecular “tentacles” inside the pore.

Using high-speed AFM, Roderick Lim, Argovia Professor at the Biozentrum and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute of the University of Basel, has not only directly...

Im Focus: 2+1 is Not Always 3 - In the microworld unity is not always strength

If a person pushes a broken-down car alone, there is a certain effect. If another person helps, the result is the sum of their efforts. If two micro-particles are pushing another microparticle, however, the resulting effect may not necessarily be the sum their efforts. A recent study published in Nature Communications, measured this odd effect that scientists call “many body.”

In the microscopic world, where the modern miniaturized machines at the new frontiers of technology operate, as long as we are in the presence of two...

Im Focus: Tiny microbots that can clean up water

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute Stuttgart have developed self-propelled tiny ‘microbots’ that can remove lead or organic pollution from contaminated water.

Working with colleagues in Barcelona and Singapore, Samuel Sánchez’s group used graphene oxide to make their microscale motors, which are able to adsorb lead...

Im Focus: ORNL researchers discover new state of water molecule

Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states.

In a paper published in Physical Review Letters, researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory describe a new tunneling state of...

Im Focus: Bionic Lightweight Design researchers of the Alfred Wegener Institute at Hannover Messe 2016

Honeycomb structures as the basic building block for industrial applications presented using holo pyramid

Researchers of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) will introduce their latest developments in the field of bionic lightweight design at Hannover Messe from 25...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

The “AC21 International Forum 2016” is About to Begin

27.04.2016 | Event News

Soft switching combines efficiency and improved electro-magnetic compatibility

15.04.2016 | Event News

Grid-Supportive Buildings Give Boost to Renewable Energy Integration

12.04.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

New fabrication and thermo-optical tuning of whispering gallery microlasers

04.05.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Introducing the disposable laser

04.05.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

A new vortex identification method for 3-D complex flow

04.05.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>