Scientists from the Department of Neuroimmunology and the Institute for Multiple Sclerosis Research (IMSF), the latter founded by the Hertie Foundation, have developed a technology that has allowed them to track several previously unexplained phenomena in multiple sclerosis (MS). A research team headed by Prof. Alexander Flügel could employ fluorescent proteins to make visible the individual steps in the process that sparks off a destructive autoimmune disease in the brain.
A T lymphocyte is activated after contact with a phagocytic cell. Each picture shows a different time-point in a video recording of the interaction between the two cells.
Source: umg/imsf göttingen
An autoreactive T lymphocyte, here in contact with a microglia cell, is activated deep within inflamed nervous tissue.
Source: umg/imsf göttingen
Autoimmune diseases are caused by a specific type of immune cell, namely T lymphocytes, which attack the body's own tissue. In multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, brain-reactive T lymphocytes invade the nervous tissue and cause inflammatory reactions there which can lead to serious and sometimes permanent damage, for example motor deficits and sensibility dysfunctions.
Known facts: T lymphocytes cannot recognize brain tissue by themselves. To do their destructive work T lymphocytes need help. Apparently central nervous systems cells give away important information about the identity of brain tissue.
The rudimentary order of events behind this process was also known: unsuspecting helper cells offer the "blind” T lymphocytes fragments of the relevant brain tissue proteins on specialized carrier proteins, so-called MHC molecules. The T lymphocytes can sense these fragments with special feelers and then can recognize brain tissue. Ultimately it is this recognition of brain tissue that is the deciding factor for the development of an autoimmune disease, because it activates immune cells which then set an alarm program into motion that leads to the release of nerve-damaging neurotransmitters and antigens.
Unclear up until now was: Exactly which nervous system cells render this fatal aid? Where exactly in brain tissue does the activation takes place? In which phase of brain tissue inflammation is the recognition process significance to the disease manifestation?
Stefan Weller | Uni Göttingen
Further reports about: > IMSF > MHC > Medical Wellness > Multiple Sklerose > Neuroimmunology > T lymphocyte > autoimmune disease > brain cell > brain tissue > central nervous system > fluorescent signals > immune cell > inflammatory reaction > infrared-fluorescent proteins > multiple sclerosis > nervous system > nervous tissue > protein fragment > scavenger cells
Hot cars can hit deadly temperatures in as little as one hour
24.05.2018 | Arizona State University
3D images of cancer cells in the body: Medical physicists from Halle present new method
16.05.2018 | Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.
Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...
A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.
The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...
At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.
At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...
There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?
At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...
So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics
Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...
25.05.2018 | Event News
02.05.2018 | Event News
13.04.2018 | Event News
25.05.2018 | Event News
25.05.2018 | Machine Engineering
25.05.2018 | Life Sciences