Every year, over 9 million new cases of TB are reported worldwide, with almost 2 million deaths. To make matters worse, the threat of multidrug-resistant bacilli has emerged, making the disease more expensive and difficult to treat.
In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported an unexpectedly high prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis with peaks of 25% or more among new cases of TB in some settings. At present, an estimated 5% of the more than 9 million people who develop TB around the world every year are infected with an MDR-TB strain, i.e. a strain that is resistant to (at least) the two most powerful anti-TB drugs currently available, isoniazid and rifampicin.
During a joint press conference at the 20th Annual Congress of the European Respiratory Society, experts in the field of tuberculosis will address current challenges in the management of the disease, such as TB/HIV co-infection and the rise of resistant TB strains as well as present an European TB research network, TBNET, aimed at advancing science, clinical research, training, policy development and public health.
“TB is a global problem that needs to be dealt with by the international community,” urges Professor Giovanni Battista Migliori, ERS Assembly Head of Respiratory Infections and Director of the WHO Collaborating Centre for TB and Lung Disease, Tradate, Italy.
TBNET is an ERS-supported Clinical Research Collaboration (CRC) in the area of tuberculosis research, working in close collaboration with WHO and ECDC. The main areas of focus are the development of improved diagnostic methods and new drugs as well as the prevention and control of drug-resistant TB.
“One of the biggest problems in most European countries is that treatment success rates are far below the 85% target set by the WHO World Health Assembly, thereby promoting resistance to common anti-tuberculosis drugs” explains Dr Davide Manissero, Head of Section Respiratory Tract Infections and Tuberculosis Programme Coordinator at the ECDC, Stockholm, Sweden.
“Part of the problem is that treatment for multidrug-resistant TB takes substantially longer than for uncomplicated TB; treatment of MDR requires up to 24 months` worth of treatment. The drugs needed are less effective than the first-line drugs for the treatment of drug-susceptible TB and cause more side effects,” says Dr Manissero.For multidrug-resistant TB, the treatment success rate is extremely low (31%).
The M/XDR-TB threat is further aggravated by the poor outcomes of this group of patients. In a cohort of 1,100 patients only 30.9% of those who started treatment in 2006 (2006 cohort) were successfully treated in the EU/EEA. A high percentage (13.2%) of these MDR-TB cases defaulted from treatment, increasing the risk for XDR-TB.
The latest figures on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis show about 440,000 cases of MDR-TB, causing at least 150,000 deaths. XDR-TB has been reported officially from 58 countries as of March 2010, explains Professor Mario Raviglione, Director, Stop TB Department, WHO, Geneva. “Of all cases of TB, over a million occurred among people living with HIV/AIDS and nearly half a million were fatal.”
It is unclear whether HIV infection is a risk factor for drug-resistant or MDR-TB. Known factors that can promote the development of resistance include malabsorption, drug intolerance, drug interactions, and noncompliance among intravenous drug abusers.
Dr Raviglione concludes: “Proper TB control based on early and rapid detection and adequate treatment until cure must be in place everywhere to interrupt transmission, avert deaths, and prevent MDR-TB.”
Dr. Anka Stegmeier-Petroianu | idw
Antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria in pediatric skin infections
17.02.2017 | University of California - San Diego
Tiny magnetic implant offers new drug delivery method
14.02.2017 | University of British Columbia
In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport
Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...
The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.
The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...
Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...
Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".
Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...
13.02.2017 | Event News
10.02.2017 | Event News
09.02.2017 | Event News
17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering
17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering
17.02.2017 | Health and Medicine