Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Molecule Plays Early Role In Nonsmoking Lung Cancer

29.07.2009
The cause of lung cancer in never-smokers is poorly understood, but a study led by investigators at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center and at the National Cancer Institute has identified a molecule believed to play an early and important role in its development.

The findings, published online recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, may lead to improved therapy for lung cancer in both never-smokers and smokers, including those with tumors resistant to targeted drugs such as gefitinib.

The study examined lung tumors from people who had never smoked and found high levels of a molecule called miR-21. The levels were even higher in tumors that had mutations in a gene called EGFR, a common feature of lung cancer in never-smokers.

“Several important lung cancer drugs target EGFR mutations, but these agents are ineffective in about 30 percent of cases in which the mutation is present,” says co-principal investigator Dr. Carlo M. Croce, professor of molecular virology, immunology and medical genetics at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute. “Our study suggests that developing agents to inhibit miR-21 might improve these anti-EGFR therapies.”

About 15 percent of the 219,000 lung cancer cases expected this year in the United States – 32,850 people – will occur in individuals who have never smoked.

Croce and his colleagues began their study by comparing 28 cases of lung tumor tissue and nearby healthy lung tissue from never-smokers for changes in microRNA, molecules that help cells regulate the kind and amount of proteins they make.

The cancer cells showed abnormally elevated levels of five microRNAs, with miR-21 increased two and a third times, the highest of all. An earlier study of smoking-related lung cancer by the same investigators also showed elevated levels of that molecule.

Furthermore, the molecule was equally high in early stage tumors and late stage tumors, suggesting that this change happens early in lung cancer development, says Croce, who also directs Ohio State’s Human Cancer Genetics program.

Using lung cancer cell lines, the investigators learned that EGFR regulates miR-21. For example, altering EGFR levels caused corresponding changes in miR-21.

Last, the investigators took cells that had a mutated EGFR gene and treated them with an anti-EGFR agent (the agent was related to gefitinib and erlotinib, targeted drugs used to treat lung cancers with EGFR mutations). As expected, many of the cells died. But when they blocked both EGFR and miR-21, the proportion of cells killed rose still more.

Overall, Croce says, “Our study suggests that the combined use of an EGFR inhibitor and a miR-21 inhibitor might improve therapy for many cases of lung cancer, and rescue lung cancer cases that have acquired resistance to several targeted drugs.”

Funding from the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute and Center for Cancer Research supported this study.

Croce holds the John W. Wolfe Chair in Human Cancer Genetics at Ohio State.

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center-James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute is one of only 40 Comprehensive Cancer Centers in the United States designated by the National Cancer Institute. Ranked by U.S. News & World Report among the top 20 cancer hospitals in the nation, The James is the 180-bed adult patient-care component of the cancer program at The Ohio State University. The OSUCCC-James is one of only five centers in the country approved by the NCI to conduct both Phase I and Phase II clinical trials.

Contact:
Darrell Ward
Medical Center Communications
614-293-3737
Darrell.Ward@osumc.edu

Darrell E. Ward | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.osumc.edu

Further reports about: Cancer EGFR Human vaccine Molecule Nonsmoking cancer drug lung cancer

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease
22.08.2017 | Duke University

nachricht Once invincible superbug squashed by 'superteam' of antibiotics
22.08.2017 | University at Buffalo

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

What the world's tiniest 'monster truck' reveals

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Treating arthritis with algae

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Witnessing turbulent motion in the atmosphere of a distant star

23.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>