These macrophage-derived mediators may have potential as biomarkers to reflect the urinary stone risk, according to a new study from Japan, which was recently presented at the recent 2nd Meeting of the EAU Section of Urolithiasis and received Clinical Research Award.
Compared to that of control subjects, the urine from individuals with a history of kidney stone formation showed significantly increased levels of the inflammatory chemokines GRO and CXCL1, and significantly decreased levels of IL-4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine involved in macrophage migration. According to Dr. Dr. Atsushi Okada, of Nagoya City University in Japan, this research deals with some very important issues in the field of urolithiasis.
"To date, the risk evaluation and the preventive index of kidney stone formation have been dependent on urinary inorganic matter such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, oxalate and citrate. However, stone formers don't often show such an abnormality," he explained.
"In a series of preceding studies, we examined organic substance in kidney stones, such as protein from kidney tissue, and revealed that stone matrix and genetic environment of renal tubular cells are as important as urinary inorganic condition for kidney stone formation."
"In the past we have also shown that in mice, certain regulatory mechanisms protect against urinary calcium oxalate stone formation, and that these mechanisms may be mediated by anti-inflammatory Type 2 macrophages (M2s). However, regulatory roles of M2 macrophages in urinary stone formation in humans have not been studied."
This latest study aimed to identify urinary M2 macrophage-associated markers, by performing multiplex urinalysis in individuals prone to developing calcium oxalate kidney stones. The authors were able to observe that stone-formers had a higher level urinary M1 markers, whereas non-stone formers had a higher level of M2 markers.
Dr. Okada believes that this study may have pronounced implications for clinical practice.
"If the usefulness of these macrophage markers is established, it will be possible to evaluate kidney stone risk not only through inorganic but also some organic substances. Furthermore, these results may lead to the development of new therapeutic drugs for kidney stone formation to control macrophage function.
Reference: A. Okada et al, Macrophage-derived cytokines and chemokines may be novel markers to predict calcium oxalate stone formation in humans, Abstract E88, 2nd Meeting of the EAU Section of Urolithiasis.
Evgenia Starkova | EurekAlert!
Researchers release the brakes on the immune system
18.10.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
Norovirus evades immune system by hiding out in rare gut cells
12.10.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
20.10.2017 | Information Technology
20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research