Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

L-dopa medication could be helpful in the treatment of phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder

10.07.2014

Scientists at Mainz and Innsbruck explore new treatment approach to overcome fear

A drug used to treat Parkinson's disease could also help people with phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Scientists of the Translational Neurosciences (FTN) Research Center at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) are currently exploring the effects of psychotherapy to extinguish fears in combination with L-dopa. This drug does not only help movement disorders, but might also be used to override negative memories.

Professor Raffael Kalisch, head of the Neuroimaging Center (NIC) of the JGU Translational Neurosciences Research Center, and his collaborators at the University of Innsbruck are conducting research in mice and in humans into the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of anxiety and fear.

"Fear reactions are essential to health and survival, but the memories of angst-inducing situations may cause long-term anxiety or phobias," explained Kalisch. In psychotherapy, the 'fear extinction' method is used in exposing people to a threat but without the adverse consequences. Latest research has proven that extinguishing fear also predicts mental health after trauma, suggesting extinction may be an important resilience mechanism.

Fear extinction involves a person being presented with a neutral stimulus, such as a circle on a screen, together with a painful sensation. Soon the person predicts pain in response to the circle on the screen and fear becomes conditioned. Then the person is shown the circle again, but this time without the painful stimulus, so that the person can disassociate the two factors. A person who is afraid of spiders, for example, will in psychotherapy be confronted with spiders in a way that reassures them that the spider is harmless.

In another research program, Belgian scientists tested the ability to extinguish fear in soldiers later deployed to a war zone and found differences in the soldiers' resilience to traumatic memories. Some experienced post-traumatic stress symptoms following their deployment, whereas those who were able to extinguish fear in the laboratory maintained a good state of mental health.

"If you are mentally flexible enough to change the associations that your mind has created, you might be better able to avoid lasting damage," explained Kalisch. In cooperation with other scientists, Kalisch has found first evidence that this process of changing negative associations might involve the brain's systems for reward and pleasure and depend on release of the neurotransmitter dopamine that helps control them.

However, even after successful extinction, old fear associations can return under other stressful circumstances. This might involve the development of PTSD or a relapse after successful psychotherapy. Kalisch has found that L-dopa, a drug to treat Parkinson's disease, can prevent this effect and could therefore possibly be used to prevent relapse in treated PTSD or phobia patients. L-dopa is taken up by the brain and transformed into dopamine that not only controls the brain's reward and pleasure centers and helps regulate movement, but also affects memory formation.

The person receiving L-dopa after extinction will thus create a stronger secondary positive memory of the extinction experience and will thus be able to more easily replace the negative memory. This raises new questions about the role of primary fear memories and secondary prevention by L-dopa. "We would like to be able to enhance the long-term effects of psychotherapy by combining it with L-dopa," said Professor Raffael Kalisch. To this end, he is about to start a clinical study of people with a spider phobia to determine the effects of L-dopa on therapy outcome. "Manipulating the dopamine system in the brain is a promising avenue to boost primary and secondary preventive strategies based on the extinction procedure," he continued.

Abstract Reference R10221: Fear extinction as a key human resilience mechanism: dopaminergic contributions.
Symposia S30: Ramping up resilience: from (epi) genetics, to optogenetics and imaging

Single dose of L-dopa makes extinction memories context-independent and prevents the return of fear. J Haaker, S Gaburro, A Sah, N Gartmann, TB Lonsdorf, K Meier, N Singewald, H-C Pape, F Morellini, R Kalisch. PNAS Plus - Biological Sciences - Psychological and Cognitive Sciences. 2013; 110 (26): E2428-36.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1303061110

Empirical support for an involvement of the mesostriatal dopamine system in human fear extinction. K A Raczka, A Reif; J Deckert, N Gartmann, M-L Mechias, M Pessiglione, R Kalisch. Translational Psychiatry. 2011; 1: e12.
DOI:10.1038/tp.2011.10

Contact
Professor Raffael Kalisch
Neuroimaging Center (NIC) at the Research Center Translational Neurosciences (FTN)
Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
phone +49 6131 17-4588
e-mail: rkalisch@uni-mainz.de
http://www.ftn.nic.uni-mainz.de/en/raffael-kalisch

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.uni-mainz.de/presse/17457_ENG_HTML.php - press release

Petra Giegerich | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Another reason to exercise: Burning bone fat -- a key to better bone health
19.05.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care

nachricht Disrupted fat breakdown in the brain makes mice dumb
19.05.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Im Focus: Using graphene to create quantum bits

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.

In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...

Im Focus: Bacteria harness the lotus effect to protect themselves

Biofilms: Researchers find the causes of water-repelling properties

Dental plaque and the viscous brown slime in drainpipes are two familiar examples of bacterial biofilms. Removing such bacterial depositions from surfaces is...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

Innovation 4.0: Shaping a humane fourth industrial revolution

17.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

23.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

“Pregnant” Housefly Males Demonstrate the Evolution of Sex Determination

23.05.2017 | Life Sciences

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>