Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New islet cell transplant procedure offers improved outcomes for patients with type 1 diabetes

20.09.2013
Advanced technique for harvesting insulin-producing cells offers an alternative to transplant surgery

The latest approach to islet transplantation, in which clusters of insulin-producing cells known as islets are transplanted from a donor pancreas into another person's liver, has produced substantially improved results for patients with type 1 diabetes, and may offer a more durable alternative to a whole pancreas transplant.

Participants in the new study received islet cells isolated from the pancreas of organ donors to help their bodies produce insulin, the life-sustaining hormone responsible for absorbing glucose from the blood. The new approach, which allowed the harvested cells a short period of rest prior to transplant, resulted in increased levels of insulin production to the degree that patients were able to discontinue daily insulin injections. Results of the study, conducted by researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, appeared recently in the journal Diabetes.

In the study, investigators used an advanced technique to isolate and harvest islet cells from donor pancreases. Unlike prior methods in which isolated islet cells were immediately transferred to the recipient, the new technique allowed the extracted cells to rest in a controlled environment for three days prior to transplant. Inflammation that occurs when the cells are harvested can often predispose the recipient to rejection after transplantation. However, by allowing the cells to rest, the inflammation – and possibility of rejection – is reduced. Ultimately, the resting period also resulted in a more efficient process by allowing investigators to use fewer islet cells than previous methods which required cells from two or more donor pancreases achieve similar results. Despite fewer islet cells being transplanted, the new approach resulted in significantly improved islet cell function.

"These results show that islet transplantation has become a more promising method for replacing the islet cells in type 1 diabetes patients experiencing severe problems with low blood sugar," said lead author Michael R. Rickels, MD, MS, medical director for the Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation Program and associate professor of Medicine in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at Penn Medicine. "We've seen positive long-term results with this technique, and are excited to be able to offer the option to our patients, where currently a whole pancreas transplant requiring major surgery is the only available alternative."

The new approach, known as the CIT07 protocol, was developed by the National Institutes of Health and sponsored by the Clinical Islet Transplantation (CIT) Consortium, in which Penn has served as a member since 2004. Under the new protocol, which measures islet cell mass, all patients involved in the study were able to come off insulin therapy and remained so after at least one year with no loss of the transplanted cell mass.

Typically, patients with type 1 diabetes must self-administer multiple injections of insulin per day, or receive it by a continuous infusion from a wearable pump. However, insulin therapy is difficult to calibrate to the body's changing energy needs, and patients are required to frequently check their blood sugar levels and adjust their insulin dosage. Varying levels of insulin in the body often results in low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which can induce a coma or other medical emergency. Conversely, islet transplantation, when effective, results in natural, internal self-monitoring and adjustment of insulin levels to keep blood sugar levels in a normal range (homeostasis).

"The fact that significantly more transplanted islet cells in the new protocol are able to successfully integrate and continue producing insulin at least one year later compared to prior studies, gives us hope that more type 1 diabetes patients will be able to live full and healthy lives free from the dangers of hypoglycemia and the burden of administering insulin," said senior author and principal investigator Ali Naji, MD, PhD, surgical director of the Kidney and Pancreas Transplant Program at Penn Medicine.

Roughly five to ten percent of all people with diabetes have Type 1 diabetes. Previously known as juvenile-onset diabetes, Type 1 diabetes is typically first diagnosed in children and young adults and persists throughout life. Patients with the disease do not produce insulin because of autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing cells in the pancreas. Without insulin, patients cannot convert sugar, starches, and other food into energy needed for survival. When left untreated, Type 1 diabetes is a potentially fatal disease.

Penn Medicine is one of the world's leading academic medical centers, dedicated to the related missions of medical education, biomedical research, and excellence in patient care. Penn Medicine consists of the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (founded in 1765 as the nation's first medical school) and the University of Pennsylvania Health System, which together form a $4.3 billion enterprise.

The Perelman School of Medicine has been ranked among the top five medical schools in the United States for the past 16 years, according to U.S. News & World Report's survey of research-oriented medical schools. The School is consistently among the nation's top recipients of funding from the National Institutes of Health, with $398 million awarded in the 2012 fiscal year.

The University of Pennsylvania Health System's patient care facilities include: The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania -- recognized as one of the nation's top "Honor Roll" hospitals by U.S. News & World Report; Penn Presbyterian Medical Center; Chester County Hospital; Penn Wissahickon Hospice; and Pennsylvania Hospital -- the nation's first hospital, founded in 1751. Additional affiliated inpatient care facilities and services throughout the Philadelphia region include Chestnut Hill Hospital and Good Shepherd Penn Partners, a partnership between Good Shepherd Rehabilitation Network and Penn Medicine.

Penn Medicine is committed to improving lives and health through a variety of community-based programs and activities. In fiscal year 2012, Penn Medicine provided $827 million to benefit our community.

Katie Delach | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uphs.upenn.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Millions through license revenues
27.04.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht New High-Performance Center Translational Medical Engineering
26.04.2017 | Fraunhofer ITEM

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>