Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Immunologists from the University of Bonn topple dogma

14.02.2014
An international team of scientists under the leadership of the University of Bonn disproves a dogma

To date, immunologists have assumed that the macrophages functioning as "scavenger cells" can be classified into two different forms. In an extensive search, the researchers have now discovered that these immune cells turn into far more different manifestations.


Colored visualization differently programmed macrophages.
(c) Photo: Jia Xue / Uni Bonn

These findings also give rise to completely new therapeutic approaches for many widespread diseases. The results are now being published in the renowned journal "Immunity".

In the body, macrophages go on patrol as "scavenger cells" and act to eliminate intruders. According to the commonly held belief in immunology, they are divided into two groups, firstly into "classical macrophages" which spur on inflammatory processes, and secondly into "alternative macrophages" which shut down inflammation. Researchers from the University of Bonn, together with their colleagues at the University of Bonn Hospital and from Worcester (USA) and Edinburgh (Scotland) are now toppling this dogma: In a breakthrough discovery, the scientists disprove this simple classification for the scavenger cells.

Macrophages process complex information like a computer

"Many macrophages do not fit this pattern," says Prof. Dr. med. Joachim L. Schultze from the Life & Medical Sciences (LIMES) Institute of the University of Bonn. "Rather, this simple concept stands in the way of innovative therapeutic approaches." According to the researchers' results, the macrophages react to many different stimuli, for example messengers which they process in the most complex way, like a computer. Therefore they do not just differentiate between macrophages which fuel inflammation or anti-inflammatory macrophages, as previously believed. Rather, the scientists have found at least nine different forms which use their weapons to optimally fight intruders in different ways.

The scientists from the LIMES Institute of the University of Bonn used blood samples from different people in order to obtain as many different macrophages as possible from the precursor cells in the samples using various growth factors. While these scavenger cells mature, certain genes are activated in their DNA. The researchers identify which genes these are by means of so-called RNA which functions in the cell as a genetic messenger. "With complex bioinformatic analyses, we obtained a type of fingerprint for each macrophage which showed us which genes in the cell were directly active," reports Prof. Schultze. Using this genetic fingerprint, the scientists were able to deduce which combination of stimuli led to the macrophage developing in a particular direction.

The dawn of completely new therapeutic options

For their bioinformatic data sets, the researchers then performed the acid test: Macrophages were obtained from the lungs of smokers and compared with the same scavenger cells in healthy lungs. It could be seen that the macrophages from smokers' lungs could not be allocated to either the kind that fuels inflammation or to the anti-inflammatory type. The scientist is convinced that "We have to step away from the simple classification of macrophages and investigate them more closely in respective connections with diseases." "When we depart from the conventional pattern, fully new concepts open up."

Much about the activation of macrophages and thus about classical immune reactions can be discerned from the genetic fingerprints. "This is the dawn of new therapy options," says Prof. Schultze. Because macrophages play a role in many widespread diseases including, for example, arteriosclerosis, obesity, diabetes, asthma, Alzheimer's disease and cancer.

Publication: Transcriptome-based network analysis reveals a spectrum model of human macrophage activation, "Immunity"

Contact information:

Prof. Dr. med. Joachim L. Schultze
Life & Medical Sciences (LIMES) Institute
Tel. 0228/7362787
E-Mail: j.schultze@uni-bonn.de
Weitere Informationen:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2014.01.006
Publication

Johannes Seiler | idw
Further information:
http://www.uni-bonn.de

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht On track to heal leukaemia
18.01.2017 | Universitätsspital Bern

nachricht Penn vet research identifies new target for taming Ebola
12.01.2017 | University of Pennsylvania

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A big nano boost for solar cells

18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Glass's off-kilter harmonies

18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed

18.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>